Le discours inaugural de John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35e président des États-Unis, fut prononcé le vendredi 20 janvier 1961, après la prestation de serment du nouveau président devant le Chief Justice des États-Unis Earl Warren maillots de foot vente, à la suite de l’élection présidentielle américaine de 1960 et de la victoire du démocrate John Fitzgerald Kennedy sur le candidat républicain Richard Nixon,.
Commencé à 12 h 51 (heure de l’Est) et comportant 1 364 mots, le discours a duré maillots de foot vente, hors applaudissements, 13 minutes et 59 secondes ; soit le quatrième discours inaugural le plus court d’un président américain. Pour autant, il est considéré comme l’un des meilleurs discours de ce type de l’histoire américaine. Il est en particulier resté dans la mémoire des Américains et d’autres personnes pour ces mots : « Vous qui, comme moi soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, êtes Américains, ne vous demandez pas ce que votre pays peut faire pour vous, mais demandez-vous ce que vous pouvez faire pour votre pays. Vous qui, comme moi, êtes citoyens du monde, ne vous demandez pas ce que les États-Unis peuvent faire pour le monde, mais demandez-vous ce que vous pouvez faire pour le monde » crampons de football de puma pas cher.
Kennedy a commencé à recueillir les idées de son discours d’investiture à la fin novembre 1960, sollicitant des suggestions auprès d’amis, collaborateurs et conseillers, y compris de membres du clergé pour d’éventuelles citations bibliques. Il a ensuite fait plusieurs projets avec ses idées et ces suggestions.
Le discours inaugural de John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35e président des États-Unis, fut prononcé le vendredi 20 janvier 1961, après la prestation de serment du nouveau président devant le Chief Justice des États-Unis Earl Warren maillots de foot vente, à la suite de l’élection présidentielle américaine de 1960 et de la victoire du démocrate John Fitzgerald Kennedy sur le candidat républicain Richard Nixon,.
Lisa Lopes « Left Eye » , de son vrai nom Lisa Nicole Lopes (27 mai 1971 à Philadelphie
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, États-Unis – 25 avril 2002 à La Ceiba, Honduras), est une rappeuse, chanteuse, parolière et actrice américaine. Elle est membre du groupe TLC.
Lisa Lopes a déjà collaboré en solo avec d’autres artistes tels que Keith Sweat et son tube How Do You Like This, ainsi qu’avec Lil’ Kim, Missy Elliott, Queen Latifah sur le single Ladies Night, Melanie Chisholm sur Never Be the Same Again qui fut numéro un dans plus de 35 pays. Elle produit aussi le groupe Blaque dont plusieurs featurings et, notamment, le single I Do. On la retrouve aussi en featuring sur l’album de Will Smith, Big Willy Style, ainsi que celui du boys band N’Sync, pour le titre Space Cowboy. Lisa Lopes fut présentatrice de l’émission musicale The Cut pour la chaîne MTV.
En 2001, elle sort l’album Supernova dont est extrait le single The Block Party. Cet album a eu la particularité de sortir partout sauf aux États-Unis.
À la suite de problèmes avec sa maison de disques, elle signe avec Suge Knight de Death Row sous l’acronyme N.I.N.A où elle avait commencé à enregistrer quelques titres sacs lancel pas cher 2016.
Après la tournée du FanMail Tour, Lisa décide de prendre du recul avec le monde de l’audimat et entame une pause musicale avec TLC, préférant se concentrer sur une carrière solo et une pause spirituelle.
En 2002, elle séjourne au Honduras où elle décide de tourner un documentaire journalier qui aboutira à un accident de voiture dans lequel elle perd la vie.
Lisa Lopes est décédée dans un accident de voiture en 2002 au Honduras où elle passait des vacances. Alors qu’elle tentait de doubler un camion, au volant de Montero Sport robe maje, et afin éviter une collision frontale avec un véhicule circulant en sens inverse, Lisa a fait une embardée mais n’est pas parvenue à parer le choc : sa voiture quitte la route, fait plusieurs tonneaux puis heurte deux arbres. L’accident aurait été causé par une vitesse excessive du véhicule. Lisa et trois autres passagers sont projetés par les vitres de la voiture. Elle décèdera des suites de ses blessures au cou et d’un traumatisme crânien sévère. Tous les autres passagers en sont sortis indemnes.
Le passager sur le siège avant était en train de filmer. Les dernières secondes qui ont précédé l’accident mortel ont donc été enregistrées sur vidéo, dans laquelle on peut voir que Lisa Lopes n’avait pas mis sa ceinture de sécurité. La vidéo de l’accident devait, à l’origine, constituer un film de vacances sous forme de journal intime filmé par Lisa pendant une retraite spirituelle de 30 jours au Honduras avec des membres de sa famille et les membres du groupe RnB Egypt. Lisa s’était rendue au Honduras pour la construction d’un centre éducatif pour des enfants défavorisés sur les 320 000 m2 de terres qu’elle possédait.
Le film contient également un autre drame filmé de manière impromptue : quelques jours avant sa mort, alors que cette fois-ci Lisa était passagère, un garçon de dix ans a été renversé par le véhicule de Lisa Lopes conduit par son assistant personnel alors que quelqu’un était en train de filmer à l’intérieur du véhicule. Le lendemain, l’enfant est décédé à l’hôpital des suites de ses blessures.
Wanda Lopes, sa mère, a fait un procès à Mitsubishi pour défaut de construction, car sa ceinture s’est déchirée lors de l’accident et que le Montero était enclin à une instabilité sur la route selon une étude de 2001 du Consumer Reports
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, équivalent du magazine français Que choisir.
Ouvrage Arrondaz is a lesser work (petit ouvrage) of the Maginot Line’s Alpine extension, the Alpine Line, also known as the Little Maginot Line Cheap Maje On Sale. The ouvrage consists of one entry block, one infantry block, and one observation block fin the vicinity of the Col de Fréjus to the south of Modane at an altitude of 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). All but one of the blocks are presently buried by later construction.
A second position, or demi-ouvrage, was planned for the other side of the Col du Fréjus road, linked by an underground gallery. The Ouvrage Stokes was to have two blocks, an entry and an emergency exit block, disposed similarly to the Arrondaz blocks The Kooples Clothing, but with mortars. Construction of the ouvrage was canceled after the discovery of rock with gypsum deposits and solution cavities.
On 22 June 1940 during the Italian invasion of France, the ouvrage was attacked with its neighbor gros ouvrage Pas du Roc by the 1 Infantry Division Superga. Supporting fire from neighboring positions repelled the attack Further action took place on the 23rd, when Arrondaz, Le Lavoir and Pas du Roc cooperated to fire on Italian troops on the surface of Arrondaz kate spade outlet. 75mm guns at Ouvrage Sapey also fired on the surface of Arrondaz. Sapey fired 246 shots at Arrondaz on the 24th. The following day, an armistice brought action to a halt.
After the 1940 armistice, Italian forces occupied the Alpine ouvrages and disarmed them. In August 1943, southern France was occupied by the German 19th Army The Kooples Jackets, which took over many of the Alpine positions that had been occupied by the Italians until Italy’s withdrawal from the war in September 1943.
In 1944, Arrondaz was recaptured relatively easily on 13 September, along with the other strongpoints around Modane. The Maurienne positions had suffered little damage during the war and by the end of 1944 were partly repaired and placed into service. Immediately after the war, the Maurienne region was regarded as an area of medium priority for restoration and reuse by the military. By the 1950s the positions in the Southeast of France were restored and operational again. However, by 1960, with France’s acquisition of nuclear weapons, the cost and effectiveness of the Maginot system was called into question. Between 1964 and 1971 nearly all of the Maginot fortifications were deactivated.
Canterwood Crest is a series of novels by author Jessica Burkhart, premiering with the 2009 book Take the Reins. The series follows young student Sasha Silver as she enters Canterwood Crest Academy, an elite school housing highly competitive equestrian riders. While attending Canterwood, Sasha encounters a disparate collection of students, including the snobbish alpha rider, Heather Fox, and eventual love interest named Jacob. As events transpire, the team members attempt to work together amidst a slew of personality clashes and romantic conflicts. In the later books, the series switches focus to new characters Drew and Lauren.
Former Connecticut student Sasha Silver plans to join the school’s equestrian team. However, she is met with resistance from three popular members known as the “Trio” (Heather, Julia, and Alison), who view her as a threat to their social status. Internal conflict sets the stage for the story, with the initial focus being Sasha’s efforts to make the team and sustain her morale and good academics. In the midst of things, Jacob begins to earn her romantic attention. However , other romantic interests also enter the story, leading to love triangles and other personal matters.
Burkhart was inspired by a combination of equestrian experience during her youth and a fondness for writing as she grew older. After much of her freelance work was published by numerous magazines, she entered 2006’s National Novel Writing Month and completed a first draft of Take the Reins. In January 2007, a literary agent offered to read the story after viewing the author’s blog. Burkhart was later signed by the agent, which eventually led to a four-book deal with Simon & Schuster.
While promoting the first novel, Burkhart maintained an online presence throughout 2008, blogging and vlogging with regard to the production of her work and the publishing process. In April, the author reported that photoshoots for her covers had been set in motion. By September, Burkhart had received an advance reader copy of Take the Reins while working on the subsequent novels.
In December, it was announced that an additional four novels would gradually follow the fourth book, Triple Fault. Later in the month, an online video trailer for Take the Reins was released, featuring photos of scenery and the character models. Trailers for other releases followed.
Sasha Silver – a girl who comes to Canterwood Crest. Sasha used to ride at The Union. She has a horse named Charm. She is also obsessed with lip gloss and her favorite is Watermelon Lip Smackers®. She is from a small town called Union and is usually teased about being from a small town by Heather Fox. Her roomie and BFF is Paige Parker. Sasha gives Jacob her IM name and he gives Sasha his IM name and that is how their relationship was started until they broke up at the Sweetheart Soiree in Chasing Blue (book two). After Heather Fox tormented (even saying basically that she kissed Jacob but didn’t really kiss him)and tried to break Sasha and Jacob up, Callie singlehandedly took care of it for them (Heather, Alison and Julia).
Callie Harper – Sasha’s friend jordans shoes, who befriended Sasha in book one (Take the Reins). Before Callie started at Canterwood, she rode for the elite New England Saddle Club. She has a horse named Black Jack. Later in the series, Sasha and Callie are no longer best friends but only team-mates. She ended up missing out on a spot in YENT at first because of Jacob (Sasha’s almost-boyfriend).
Heather Fox – a spitfire of a girl who dislikes Sasha at first, but begins to like her throughout the series. Leader of the clique called ‘The Trio’. She has a horse named Aristocrat. She is very serious about riding and despises Jasmine King. She lives in NYC and is very fashionable.
Julia Myer – 2nd member of ‘The Trio’. Friendships come second to her tory burch online, riding being the first. Her and Alison are somewhat “sidekicks” of Heather. She has a horse named Trix. Julia gets expelled from Canterwood Crest after creating blog, in Scandals, Rumors, Lies after she was not picked for the YENT team.
Alison Robb – 3rd member of ‘The Trio’. She’s very quiet, but she observes everyone and everything around her with great detail. Her and Julia are somewhat “sidekicks” of Heather. Alison is a lot kinder to Sasha and her friends than Julia. She has a horse named Sunstruck.
Jasmine King – a mean girl that Sasha and the Canterwood gang met one day at a show. She takes great delight in insulting students from Canterwood Crest. She has a horse named Phoenix. She will do anything to win, even putting her horse at risk.
Jacob Schwartz – a boy that Sasha meets at Canterwood Crest. She has a very big crush on him. he likes her and ends up sitting right next to her in Mr. Ramirez’s class. He is afraid of horses. Jacob has an on-off relationship with Sasha, but in Unfriendly Competition, has a permanent relationship with Sasha.
Eric Rodriguez – Eric is another boy Sasha meets. They both become good friends, as Eric is a mid-year transfer student. Eric has a relationship with Sasha, but they break up in Little White Lies after he catches Jacob kissing Sasha in her dorm. They agree to still be friends and later in the series Eric help Jacob do something for Sasha. Eric is a rider, but doesn’t own a horse, only riding a school one; Luna.
Paige Parker – Paige was Sasha’s room-mate, and former best friend. They both met in Take the Reins but their friendship got out of hand, and things did not end well with Sasha and Paige. Paige now lives with Geena in her dorm. Paige stars in a show called “Teen Cuisine” as she always baked goodies for Sasha.
Brit Chan – Brit is Sasha’s new room-mate where their dorm is: Orchard Hall. She arrives in Elite Ambition and is called the new “IT” girl. She specializes in dressage, and clicks with Sasha in day one. She is a transfer student. She is also from a small town, like Sasha, which is why they click as friends so fast.
Welcome the New Class
Lauren Towers – Lauren is a straight A student, her fave color is sky blue, and works hard at everything. She loves decorating her dorm in soft colors and loves decor. Lauren has had an accident in the past, but nothing is going to stop her. She looks up to Sasha, and is best friends with Khloe, Lexa, Clare, Brielle and Ana. Her boyfriend is Drew Adams, and her ex-boyfriend is Taylor. She loves tea; her favorite kind being Sugar Cookie Sleigh Ride from the Seasonal Collection. She owns a sweet gray mare, Whisper. Whisper is a Hanoverian.
Khloe Kinsella – Khloe is Lauren’s BFF, and is a drama queen! She loves acting, and wants her name to be on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Khloe is loyal to her friends, and fierce and is the person to keep Lauren laughing. Khloe is Lauren’s dorm room-mate bogner jackets. she also owns a horse named Ever, a Hanoverian Mare.
Lexa Reed – One of the sweetest girls on campus, Lexa is serious about riding but never gets competitive with her friends. She and Lauren share an addiction with Hob Nobs. Lexa previously lived in London. She owns a horse named Honor, a Strawberry Roan mare.
Clare Bryant – Best friends with Khloe and Riley, is often caught stuck-in-the-middle whenever Riley and Khloe are not getting along with each other. Which is all the time. She’s a great mediator, and the kind of girl who’s a true friend. She can never stand to be away from her gelding; Fuego.
Riley Edwards – Riley is enemy number one at Canterwood. She and Lauren have never gotten along. She is tough in the arena and lets everyone know she means business. Like Khloe she loves acting. The shared love of theater with Khloe causes some serious off-stage drama between Riley and Khloe. She owns her own horse named Adonis who is a gray gelding.
Taylor Frost – Taylor is Lauren’s ex-boyfriend from Yates Preparatory Academy in Union, Connecticut. He makes an unexpected appearance and makes someone mad.
Brielle Monaco – Brielle or Bri as known is Lauren’s best friend from Yates Preparatory School, and in Union. She makes an unexpected appearance at the unlikeliest place of all.
Carina Johansson – Carina is a transfer student from Sweden! She came over to CCA, to train with Mr. Conner in the foreign exchange program. She excels in dressage, but when Lauren and Khloe dig into Carina’s past, they realize there is more than meets the eye. They become good friends when they bond over their love of horses and dressage.
Black, Maroon and Silver
Navarre High School is one of six high schools in the Santa Rosa County School District. The school is located in Navarre, Florida, USA, in Santa Rosa County. Its feeder schools are Holley-Navarre Middle School and Woodlawn Beach Middle School.
There are over 300 classrooms, including 4 portable classrooms (cottages). Navarre High School has a multi-use athletic stadium and fields (football, soccer, track and field). There are four tennis courts, two basketball hard courts, and two baseball/softball fields
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. There are also two field houses, two weightlifting rooms victoria beckham dresses, four boys locker rooms (football, baseball, basketball and P.E.) and three girls locker rooms (cheerleading/weightlifting, basketball/volleyball and PE).
Navarre High School’s mission is to adequately prepare students to live, learn, and choose well in the 21st century.
Navarre’s rivals are Gulf Breeze High School and Milton High School (Florida). Navarre High School offers just over 100 courses: 23 fine art courses, 17 math courses
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, 17 science courses, 13 social studies courses, 13 business courses, 12 English courses, 10 foreign language courses, 6 physical education courses, 5 general courses, NJROTC, and 2 DCT (Diversified Career Technology) courses. This includes 34 AP (Advanced Placement) courses.
Navarre High School’s Statistics:
The school offers 13 sport choices.
The three seasons for sports are fall, winter, and spring.
In the 2015 season, Navarre High’s football team went through a undefeated regular season. Unfortunately, they lost by a single point against Tate High School in the first playoff game.
The clubs at NHS include:
Navarre High School provides the Navy Junior Reserved Officer Training Corps program which is funded by the U.S. Navy. The curriculum is called Naval Science I-IV. Its led by Senior Naval Science Instructor Captain Mark Eubanks, USN RET. and the Naval Science Instructor Master Chief Petty Officer Jimmy Ethridge, USN RET. It’s a program led by cadets who have made this one of the top NJROTC programs in Area 8. This program also competes nationally often for things such as drill, academics, orienteering
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Géolocalisation sur la carte : Bosnie-Herzégovine
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Bosnie-Herzégovine
Srebrenica (en serbe cyrillique : Сребреница [srêbrenit͡sa]) est une ville et une municipalité de Bosnie-Herzégovine située dans la République serbe de Bosnie soccer jerseys 2016 outlet. Selon les premiers résultats du recensement bosnien de 2013, la ville intra muros compte 2 607 habitants et la municipalité 15 242.
Le nom de Srbrenica lui vient des anciennes mines d’argent exploitées jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle, dont Dubrovnik était le débouché naturel à l’époque ottomane (srebro signifie « argent » en langue locale, d’où aussi son nom latin d’Argentina). Aujourd’hui, elle a pour industrie des mines de sel et une station thermale.
Pendant la guerre de Bosnie, la ville fut assiégée par les forces serbes et fut le théâtre en juillet 1995 du massacre d’environ 8 000 Bosniaques maillots de foot. Les massacres ont surtout été perpétrés sur des hommes et garçons de la ville ; ainsi, Srebrenica est encore aujourd’hui une ville où près de 87 % de la population sont des femmes (estimation Nations Unies christian louboutin pas cher, décembre 2006)[réf. nécessaire].
La municipalité de Srbrenica compte 81 localités :
En 1991, sur un total de 36 666 habitants, la population se répartissait de la manière suivante :
Le 24 mars 2007, l’Assemblée municipale de Srebrenica a adopté une résolution demandant l’indépendance vis-à-vis de la République serbe de Bosnie ; les membres serbes de l’assemblée ont refusé de prendre part à ce vote.
À la suite des élections locales de 2012, les 23 sièges de l’assemblée municipale se répartissaient de la manière suivante, :
Ćamil Duraković, sans étiquette maillots de foot, a été élu maire de la municipalité,.
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Pour améliorer cet article, des médias (images, animations, vidéos, sons) sous licence libre ou du domaine public sont les bienvenus. Si vous êtes l’auteur d’un média que vous souhaitez partager, importez-le herve leger paris. Si vous n’êtes pas l’auteur, vous pouvez néanmoins faire une demande de libération d’image à son auteur.
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Loire-Atlantique
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Nantes
Le collège et lycée externat des enfants nantais est un établissement catholique d’enseignement général, secondaire et supérieur (CPGE) de Nantes, créé en 1851 et actuellement situé dans le quartier Hauts-Pavés – Saint-Félix.
L’établissement est fondé dans le cadre juridique de la loi Falloux en 1851 par l’évêque de Nantes karen millen robes, Mgr Jacquemet ; le terme d’« Enfants nantais » fait référence à saint Donatien et saint Rogatien, patrons de la ville et du diocèse de Nantes.
L’externat a été installé successivement rue Colbert, rue Bonne-Louise, rue de Gigant, avant d’emménager à son adresse actuelle située au numéro 31 de l’avenue Camus en 1933.
Les terrains sur lequel a été édifié le bâtiment principal d’origine ont été cédés par la famille Lemoine. La parcelle descend jusqu’à la Chézine, qui en cas de crues importantes, envahit les terrains de sports qui la bordent. Avant de devenir le siège de l’internat, l’immeuble de la rue Colbert reçoit les classes maternelles, plus tard transférées avenue Émile-Boissier.
La décoration de la chapelle est due au chanoine Bouchaud.
Avenue Camus, dans les années 1950, la maison bourgeoise située face au bâtiment principal est transformée en salles de classes des terminales et le petit laboratoire de physique-chimie, jusque là à l’étroit dans une descente d’escalier, y est transféré.
L’Externat a longtemps été le lieu principal d’éducation pour les enfants de la bourgeoisie catholique nantaise, et l’est toujours aujourd’hui dans une moindre mesure.
Le corps professoral a longtemps été formé par des laïcs et par des prêtres séculiers. Les services généraux (conciergerie, cuisines, infirmerie, auxiliaires de cultes) étaient assurés par des sœurs de Sainte-Marie de Torfou. En raison de la pénurie des vocations, le corps professoral est essentiellement laïc dans la deuxième moitié du XXe siècle, notamment à partir de la loi Debré sur l’enseignement privé, avec le système des établissements sous contrat
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Aujourd’hui, l’Externat accueille ses élèves dans cinq bâtiments désignés comme suit : Renaume, Lequimener, “petit collège” (pour les 6e-5e), Chézine et Lemoine. Il possède trois entrées situées avenue Camus (entrée principale), rue Colonel-Desgrée-du-Loup et avenue Émile-Boissier. En 2010-2011 sac lancel, environ 1 500 élèves y sont inscrits[réf. nécessaire].
En 2015, le lycée se classe 26e sur 46 au niveau départemental en termes de qualité d’enseignement, et 1121e sur 2311 au niveau national. Le classement s’établit sur trois critères : le taux de réussite au bac, la proportion d’élèves de première qui obtient le baccalauréat en ayant fait les deux dernières années de leur scolarité dans l’établissement, et la valeur ajoutée (calculée à partir de l’origine sociale des élèves, de leur âge et de leurs résultats au diplôme national du brevet).
Le classement national des classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) se fait en fonction du taux d’admission des élèves dans les grandes écoles. En 2015, L’Étudiant donnait le classement suivant pour les concours de 2014 :
La famille Parler (tchèque : Parléř) est une famille de tailleurs de pierre, sculpteurs et maîtres d’œuvre originaires de Schwäbisch Gmünd qui a créé ou participé à la création d’œuvres importantes d’art et d’architecture gothiques dans tout l’Europe doudoune en ligne, parmi lesquels les premiers bustes de la Renaissance, la cathédrale de la Sainte-Croix (de) de Schwäbisch Gmünd, la cathédrale Saint-Guy de Prague et le Pont Charles de Prague, l’église Saint-Sébald de Nuremberg, l’église Sainte-Barbe de Kutná Hora en République tchèque vestes bogner, la tour de l’Hôtel de Ville à Cracovie, la cathédrale d’Ulm, la cathédrale Notre-Dame de Fribourg et la cathédrale de Bâle. L’influence de leur œuvre est considérable, et on parle de l’apport du style « parlérien » en Souabe, en Bohême ou à Strasbourg.
Tous les membres de la famille ne sont pas identifiés avec certitude par manque de documents écrits, et les rapports de parenté ne sont pas toujours clairs. Les Parlier utilisent, comme signe d’identification ou marque de tâcheron une ligne brisée, parfois doublée, formée de deux équerres, appelé le « Parlerhaken » (le « crochet de Parler »).
Le premier membre connu de la famille Parler est Heinrich Parler l’Ancien (de) (1), aussi appelé Heinrich von Gmünd der Ältere (vers 1300–1387), d’ailleurs peut-être originaire de Cologne. Il a dirigé la construction de la Cathédrale de la Sainte-Croix de Schwäbisch Gmünd. Une inscription sur le buste de Peter Parler dans le triforium de la cathédrale de Prague, datant de 1378-1380 le nomme « de colonia magister de gemunden in suevia », donc il est peut être originaire ou avoir travaillé à Cologne ou à Gmünd.
Les représentants les plus importants de la famille sont ses fils Johann et Peter. Le premier, Johann Parler l’Ancien (de), appelé Johann von Gmünd (2), est maître d’œuvre à la cathédrale de Fribourg depuis 1354, et à la cathédrale de Bâle depuis 1356. Deux autres membres de la famille sont peut-être ses fils ; il s’agit de Michael (3), maître d’œuvre à la cathédrale de Strasbourg, et de Heinrich (4), architecte du margrave Jobst de Moravie. Tous deux s’appelaient autant « von Freiburg » que « von Gmünd » et avaient des sceaux presque identiques.
L’autre fils de Heinrich Parler l’Ancien, le plus connu peut-être est Peter Parler (5), qui est l’architecte de la cathédrale de Prague. La filiation est certifiée par l’inscription déjà mentionnée sur son buste dans le triforium, mais aussi par mes régistres de la municipalité de Prague, où il est plusieurs fois nommé « von Gmünd ». Peter est marié deux fois.
Du premier mariage sont issus deux filles et trois fils, dont deux sont architectes. Le premier est Wenzel Parler (de) (6), né vers 1360 et formé à Prague; il travaille avec son père dans les années 1390 à la construction de la tour Sud de la cathédrale Saint-Guy. En 1397 il est appelé à Vienne, en Autriche
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, comme maître d’œuvre à la cathédrale Saint-Étienne et traille là aussi sur la tour Sud. Il est sollicité dès 1401 pour rejoindre l’équipe du chantier de la cathédrale de Milan, mais meurt à Vienn en 1404 avant d’avoir pu rejoindre Milan. L’autre fils architecte est Johann Parler le Jeune (de) (7).
Du deuxième mariage, contracté entre 1380 et 1382, sont issus deux fils, dont l’un, appelé Johann (Janco) (8) est également tailleur de pierres et a probablement travaillé à Zagreb.
Un certain Michael, né Schwäbisch Gmünd lancel sac à main, est mentionné à Prague en 1383 comme « frater germanus magistri Petri nove fabrice ecclesie Pragensis » et est donc un frère de Peter. Il travaillait en 1359 sur le chantier de l’abbaye cistercienne de Zlatá Koruna (de), et en 1383 à Prague. Aucun document écrit existe. Trois autres architectes, actifs sur le chantier de la cathédrale d’Ulm, dont les noms sont Heinrich Parler l’Ancien, Michael et Heinrich Parler le Jeune ne semblent pas s’identifier avec les maîtres éponymes. Le Heinrich Parler l’Ancien de la cathédrale d’Ulm dont la reconstruction commence en 1877 est peut-être le Heinrich von Gmünd, si ce dernier est bien décédé en 1387 et non pas vers 1370.
Le nom « Parler » est attesté seulement depuis Peter Parler, mais il est largement répandu pour les membres de la famille. Il dérive du mot Parlier (de) du moyen haut-allemand qui désigne, dans les chantiers du Moyen Âge, un chef de chantier ou contremaître qui parle au nom de compagnons du chantier de construction, qui est donc l’interlocuteur entre les artisans et les commanditaires; on rencontre les termes « parlerius » ou « parlerus », des mots latinisés dérivés du mot français « parler ». Michael Parler est ainsi nommé « lapicida dictus parler ».
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(de) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en allemand intitulé « Perler » (voir la liste des auteurs).
Noah Schwartz (born August 1, 1983) is an American professional poker player from Miami Beach, Florida Free People On Sale. He has won a World Series of Poker bracelet and a World Poker Tour title. He has reached four WPT final tables, five WSOP final tables and his lifetime winnings as of February 2015 exceed $5.2 million.
Schwartz was born and raised in South Florida. He played high school baseball and was a highly-recruited left-handed pitcher. During his freshman year at Florida International University he injured his elbow, prematurely ending his baseball career. He finished school and received a bachelor’s degree in Finance.
When he was 17 his father died suddenly of cancer and Schwartz began playing poker as a distraction. At first he played a weekly game with friends and family but then moved to online poker. He financed his PartyPoker account with a credit card and a student loan for $25,000. Early on his earnings and losses were volatile. He won a couple of tournaments and was capable of winning tens of thousands of dollars a day but he would often lose it quickly, playing long hours with little sleep
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. In 2006, with the last of the money in his account, Schwartz entered a PartyPoker tournament and won $93,000. This time he used the money to pay off his debts. He grew more disciplined in his approach and began winning small amounts consistently. In 2007 he won PokerStars Sunday Second Chance for $47,000, followed by PokerStars Sunday Million for $291,473.
That same year Schwartz began playing live with the money he had won online. He immediately began playing $5,000 and $10 2016 adidas soccer equipment online store,000 events and had some success at the 2007 World Series of Poker Main Event, coming in 252nd place. After winning a few small cashes on the World Poker Tour, Schwartz took fourth in the 2008 Borgata Winter Open for $331, 958, which was his largest payday up to that point. He managed four more final tables over the next year before finishing eighth in the 2009 WSOP $40,000 buy-in event for $246,834. He took third in the 2010 WPT Festa Al Lago main event for $344,968 and in 2011 he made the final table for both WSOP Europe and Epic Poker League, earning $149,740 and $89,680 respectively. Schwartz started 2012 with a win in a PokerStars Caribbean Adventure Preliminary event and then made another WPT final table, finishing fourth in the LA Poker Classic for $355,750. That summer he also took sixth in the EPT Grand Final high roller event for $219,535.
In 2012 Schwartz gained attention by funding his one-million-dollar entry fee for The Big One for One Drop tournament through investor capital. He registered a company called One Drop Investments LLC and received commitments from about a dozen investors. The Wall Street Journal cited it as an example of the growing trend of successful players drumming up interest from hedge fund managers, real estate moguls and wealthy businessmen.
In November of 2012 Schwartz won his first World Poker Tour title at the Jacksonville bestbet Fall Poker Scramble, beating a field of 477 entrants and earning $402,970. In 2013 Schwartz earned his first World Series of Poker bracelet, beating Ludovic Lacay to win the €3,000 Pot-Limit Omaha Mixed Max Event at the 2013 WSOP Europe in Cannes, France. In December 2014 Schwartz made the final table in the WPT Alpha8 Las Vegas, finishing fourth and winning $539,550. In January 2015 Schwartz won the World Poker Tour’s Alpha8 Florida tournament at the Seminole Hard Rock Casino. He won $585,000 and became the first player in poker history to win both an Alpha8 title and a regular WPT title.
As of February 2015, Schwartz is a top-50 globally-ranked player and his total live earnings are greater than $5.2 million.
Schwartz resides in Sunny Isles Beach, Florida. He is an avid Miami Heat fan and often attends games, seated courtside. He is involved with the Make-a-Wish Foundation and the South Florida After-School All-Stars organization
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Protestantism and Islam entered into contact during the 16th century, at a time when Reformed (or Calvinist) Protestants in present-day Hungary and Transylvania coincided with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans. As both were in conflict with the Austrian Holy Roman Emperor and his Catholic allies, numerous exchanges occurred, exploring religious similarities and the possibility of trade and military alliances.
As Protestantism is divided into a few distinguishable branches and multiple denominations within the former, it is hard to determine the relations specifically. Many of these denominations can have a different approachment to this matter. Islam is divided as well into various denominations. This article focuses on Protestant-Muslim relations, but should be taken with caution.
Relations became more conflictual in the early modern and modern periods, although recent attempts have been made at rapprochement. In terms of comparative religion, there also interesting similarities (especially with Sunni Muslims, while Catholics are often noted for similarities with Shi’ites), as well as differences, in both religious approaches.
Following the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmet II and the unification of the Middle East under Selim I, Suleiman the Magnificent, the son of Selim, managed to expand Ottoman rule to the Balkans. The Habsburg Empire thus entered into direct conflict with the Ottomans.
At the same time the Protestant Reformation was taking place in numerous areas of northern and central Europe, in harsh opposition to Papal authority and the Holy Roman Empire led by Emperor Charles V. This situation led the Protestants to consider various forms of cooperation and rapprochement (religious, commercial, military) with the Muslim world, in opposition to their common Habsburg enemy.
During the development of the Reformation, Protestantism and Islam were considered closer to each other than they were to Catholicism: “Islam was seen as closer to Protestantism in banning images from places of worship, in not treating marriage as a sacrament and in rejecting monastic orders”.
The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire was known for his tolerance of the Christian and Jewish faiths within his dominions, whereas the King of Spain did not tolerate the Protestant faith. The Ottoman Empire was indeed known at that time for its religious tolerance. Various religious refugees, such as the Huguenots, some Anglicans, Quakers, Anabaptists or even Jesuits or Capuchins were able to find refuge at Istanbul and in the Ottoman Empire, where they were given right of residence and worship. Further, the Ottomans supported the Calvinists in Transylvania and Hungary but also in France. The contemporary French thinker Jean Bodin wrote:
“The great emperor of the Turks does with as great devotion as any prince in the world honour and observe the religion by him received from his ancestors, and yet detests he not the strange religions of others; but on the contrary permits every man to live according to his conscience: yes, and that more is, near unto his palace at Pera, suffers four diverse religions viz. that of the Jews, that of the Christians, that of the Grecians, and that of the Mahometans”
Martin Luther, in his 1528 pamphlet, On War against the Turk, calls for the Germans to resist the Ottoman invasion of Europe, as the catastrophic Siege of Vienna was lurking, but expressed views of Islam which, compared with his virulent anti-Semitism, are relatively mild. On the one hand, Luther extensively criticized the principles of Islam; on the other hand, he also expressed tolerance for the Islamic faith:
“Let the Turk believe and live as he will, just as one lets the papacy and other false Christians live.”
However, this statement mentions “Turks”, and it is not clear whether the meaning was of “Turks” as a representation of the specific rule of the Ottoman Empire, or as a representation of Islam in general.
Martin Luther’s ambivalence also appears in one of his other comments, in which he said that “A smart Turk makes a better ruler than a dumb Christian”.
Martin Luther also took note of the similarities between Islam and Protestantism in the rejection of idols, although he noted Islam was much more drastic in its complete rejection of images. In On War against the Turk, Luther is actually less critical of the Turks than he is of the Pope, whom he calls an anti-Christ, or the Jews, whom he describes as “the Devil incarnate”. He urges his contemporaries to also see the good aspects in the Turks, and refers to some who were favourable to the Ottoman Empire, and “who actually want the Turk to come and rule, because they think that our German people are wild and uncivilized – indeed that they are half-devil and half-man”.
The Ottomans also felt closer to the Protestants than to the Catholics. At one point, a letter was sent from Suleiman the Magnificent to the “Lutherans” in Flanders, claiming that he felt close to them, “since they did not worship idols, believed in one God and fought against the Pope and Emperor”.
This notion of religious similarities was again taken up in epistolary exchanges between Elizabeth I of England and Sultan Murad III. In one correspondence, Murad entertained the notion that Islam and Protestantism had “much more in common than either did with Roman Catholicism, as both rejected the worship of idols”, and argued for an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire.
In a 1574 letter to the “Members of the Lutheran sect in Flanders and Spain”, Murad III made considerable efforts to highlight the similarities between Islamic and Protestants principles. He wrote:
“As you, for your part, do not worship idols, you have banished the idols and portraits and “bells” from churches, and declared your faith by stating that God Almighty is one and Holy Jesus is His Prophet and Servant, and now, with heart and soul chinese cheongsam, are seeking and desirous of the true faith; but the faithless one they call Papa does not recognize his Creator as One, ascribing divinity to Holy Jesus (upon him be peace!), and worshiping idols and pictures which he has made with his own hands, thus casting doubt upon the oneness of God and instigating how many servants to that path of error”
Such claims seem to have been politically inspired as well Nike voetbalschoenen online winkel, with the Ottomans trying to establish religious common ground as a way to secure a political alliance. Elizabeth I herself however made efforts to adjust her own religious rhetoric in order to minimize differences with the Ottomans and facilitate relations. In her correspondence with Murad, she stresses the monotheism and the anti-idolatry of her religion, by uniquely describing herself as:
“Elizabeth, by the grace of the most mighty God, the three part and yet singular Creator of Heaven and Earth, Queen of England, France and Ireland, the most invincible and most mighty defender of the Christian faith against all the idolatry of those unworthy ones that live amongst Christians, and falsely profess the name of Christ”
Military cooperation between the Ottoman Empire and European powers started in earnest with the Franco-Ottoman alliance of 1535. The alliance provided strategic support to, and effectively protected, the kingdom of France from the ambitions of Charles V. It also gave the opportunity for the Ottoman Empire to become involved in European diplomacy and gain prestige in its European dominions. Side effects included a lot of negative propaganda against the actions of France and its “unholy” alliance with a Muslim power. According to historian Arthur Hassall the consequences of the Franco-Ottoman alliance were far-reaching: “The Ottoman alliance had powerfully contributed to save France from the grasp of Charles V, it had certainly aided Protestantism in Germany, and from a French point of view, it had rescued the North German allies of Francis I.”‘
Even after the 1571 Battle of Lepanto Ottoman support for France would continue however, as well as support for the Dutch and the English after 1580, and support for Protestants and Calvinists, as a way to counter Habsburg attempts at supremacy in Europe. Various overtures were made by Ottoman rulers to the Protestants, who were also fighting against a common enemy, the Catholic House of Habsburg. Suleiman the Magnificent is known to have sent at least one letter to the “Lutherans” in Flanders, offering troops at the time they would request, Murad III is also known to have advocated to Elizabeth I an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire.
Overall, the military activism of the Ottoman Empire on the southern European front probably was the reason why Lutheranism was able to survive in spite of the opposition of Charles V and reach recognition at the Peace of Augsburg in September 1555: “the consolidation, expansion and legitimization of Lutheranism in Germany by 1555 should be attributed to Ottoman imperialism more than to any other single factor”.
Fundamentally, the Protestant Dutch had strong antagonisms to both the Catholics and the Muslims. In some cases however, alliances, or attempts at alliance between the Dutch and the Muslims were made possible, as when the Dutch allied with the Muslims of the Moluccas to oust the Portuguese, and the Dutch became rather tolerant of the Islamic religion in their colonial possessions after the final subjugation of Macassar in 1699.
During the Dutch Revolt, the Dutch were under such a desperate situation that they looked for help from every nationality, and “indeed even a Turk”, as wrote the secretary of Jan van Nassau. The Dutch saw Ottoman successes against the Habsburgs with great interest, and saw Ottoman campaigns in the Mediterranean as an indicator of relief on the Dutch front. William wrote around 1565:
“The Turks are very threatening, which will mean, we believe, that the king will not come to the Netherlands this year”
The Dutch looked expectantly at the development of the Siege of Malta (1565), hoping that the Ottomans “were in Valladolid already”, and used it as a way to obtain concessions from the Spanish crown.
Contacts soon became more direct. William of Orange sent ambassadors to the Ottoman Empire for help in 1566 cheap jerseys. When no other European power would help, “the Dutch cause was offered active support, paradoxically enough, only by the Ottoman Turks”. One of the Sultan principal advisers Joseph Miques, Duke of Naxos, delivered a letter to the Calvinists in Antwerp pledging that “the forces of the Ottomans would soon hit Philip II’s affairs so hard that he would not even have the time to think of Flanders”. The death of Suleiman the Magnificent later in 1566 however, meant that the Ottoman were unable to offer support for several years after. In 1568, William of Orange again sent a request to the Ottomans to attack Spain, without success. The 1566-1568 revolt of the Netherlands finally failed, largely due to the lack of foreign support.
In 1574, William of Orange and Charles IX of France, through his pro-Huguenot ambassador François de Noailles, Bishop of Dax, tried again to obtain the support of the Ottoman ruler Selim II. Selim II sent his support through a messenger, who endeavoured to put the Dutch in contact with the rebellious Moriscos of Spain and the pirates of Algiers. Selim also sent a great fleet which conquered Tunis in October 1574, thus succeeding in reducing Spanish pressure on the Dutch, and leading to negotiations at the Conference of Breda. After the death of Charles IX in May 1574 however, contacts weakened, although the Ottomans are said to have supported the 1575-1576 revolt, and establish a Consulate in Antwerp (De Griekse Natie). The Ottomans made a truce with Spain, and shifted their attention to their conflict with Persia, starting the long Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590).
The British author William Rainolds (1544–1594) wrote a pamphlet entitled “Calvino-Turcismus” in criticism of these rapprochements.
The phrase Liever Turks dan Paaps (“Rather a Turk than a Papist”), was a Dutch slogan during the Dutch Revolt of the end of the 17th century. The slogan was used by the Dutch mercenary naval forces (the “Sea Beggars”) in their fight against Catholic Spain. The banner of the Sea Beggars was also similar to that of the Turks, with a crescent on a red background. The phrase “Liever Turks dan Paaps” was coined as a way to express that life under the Ottoman Sultan would have been more desirable than life under the King of Spain. The Flemish noble D’Esquerdes wrote to this effect that he:
“would rather become a tributary to the Turks than live against his conscience and be treated according to those [anti-heresy] edicts”
The slogan Liever Turks dan Paaps seems to have been largely rhetorical however, and the Dutch hardly contemplated life under the Sultan at all. Ultimately, the Turks were infidels, and the heresy of Islam alone disqualified them from assuming a more central (or consistent) role in the rebels’ program of propaganda.
During the early 17th century the Dutch trading ports housed many Muslims, according to a Dutch traveler to Persia there would be no use in describing the Persians as ‘they are so numerous in Dutch cities’. Dutch paintings from that time often show Turks, Persians and Jews strolling through the city. Officials that were sent to the Netherlands included Zeyn-Al-Din Beg of the Saffavid empire in 1607 and Ömer Aga of the Ottoman Empire in 1614. Like the Venetians en Genoese before them, the Dutch and English established a trade network in the eastern Mediterranean and had regular interactions with the ports of the Persian Gulf. Many Dutch painters even went to work in Isfahan, central Iran.
From 1608, Samuel Pallache served as an intermediary to discuss an alliance between Morocco and the Low Countries. In 1613, the Moroccan Ambassador Al-Hajari discussed in La Hague with the Dutch Prince Maurice of Orange the possibility of an alliance between the Dutch Republic, the Ottoman Empire, Morocco and the Moriscos, against the common enemy Spain. His book mentions the discussion for a combined offensive on Spain, as well as the religious reasons for the good relations between Islam and Protestantism at the time:
Their teachers [Luther and Calvin] warned them [Protestants] against the Pope and the worshippers of Idols; they also told them not to hate the Muslims because they are the sword of God in the world against the idol-worshippers. That is why they side with the Muslims.
During the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), the Dutch would strengthen contacts with the Moriscos against Spain.
French Huguenots were in contact with the Moriscos in plans against Spain in the 1570s. Around 1575, plans were made for a combined attack of Aragonese Moriscos and Huguenots from Béarn under Henri de Navarre against Spanish Aragon, in agreement with the king of Algiers and the Ottoman Empire, but these projects foundered with the arrival of John of Austria in Aragon and the disarmament of the Moriscos. In 1576, a three-pronged fleet from Constantinople was planned to disembark between Murcia and Valencia while the French Huguenots would invade from the north and the Moriscos accomplish their uprising, but the Ottoman fleet failed to arrive.
Following the sailing of The Lion of Thomas Wyndham in 1551, and the 1585 establishment of the English Barbary Company, trade developed between England and the Barbary states, and especially Morocco. Diplomatic relations and an alliance were established between Elizabeth and the Barbary states. England entered in a trading relationship with Morocco detrimental to Spain, selling armour, ammunition, timber, metal in exchange for Moroccan sugar, in spite of a Papal ban, prompting the Papal Nuncio in Spain to say of Elizabeth: “there is no evil that is not devised by that woman, who, it is perfectly plain, succoured Mulocco (Abd-el-Malek) with arms, and especially with artillery”.
In 1600, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, the principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur, visited England as an ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I. Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spent 6 months at the court of Elizabeth, in order to negotiate an alliance against Spain. The Moroccan ruler wanted the help of an English fleet to invade Spain, Elizabeth refused, but welcomed the embassy as a sign of insurance, and instead accepted to establish commercial agreements. Queen Elizabeth and king Ahmad continued to discuss various plans for combined military operations, with Elizabeth requesting a payment of 100,000 pounds in advance to king Ahmad for the supply of a fleet, and Ahmad asking for a tall ship to be sent to get the money. Elizabeth “agreed to sell munitions supplies to Morocco, and she and Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur talked on and off about mounting a joint operation against the Spanish”. Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy.
Diplomatic relations were established with the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Elizabeth, with the chartering of the Levant Company and the dispatch of the first English ambassador to the Porte, William Harborne, in 1578. Numerous envoys were dispatched in both directions and epistolary exchanges occurred between Elizabeth and Sultan Murad III. In one correspondence, Murad entertained the notion that Islam and Protestantism had “much more in common than either did with Roman Catholicism, as both rejected the worship of idols”, and argued for an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire. To the dismay of Catholic Europe, England exported tin and lead (for cannon-casting) and ammunition to the Ottoman Empire, and Elizabeth seriously discussed joint military operations with Murad III during the outbreak of war with Spain in 1585, as Francis Walsingham was lobbying for a direct Ottoman military involvement against the common Spanish enemy.
English writers of the period often expressed admiration towards the “Turks” and the “Ottoman Empire”, describing it as endowed with “Majestical and August form and features” and being the “Powerfullest nation in Europe”, saying that the Turks were “the only modern people, great in action- he who would behold these times in their greatest glory, could not find a better scene than Turky” and that they had “incredible civility”.
After peace was made with Catholic Spain in 1604, English pirates nevertheless continued to raid Christian shipping in the Mediterranean, this time under the protection of the Muslim rulers of the Barbary States, and often converting to Islam in the process, in what has been described as Anglo-Turkish piracy.
In eastern Central Europe, particularly in Transylvania, tolerant Ottoman rule meant that the Protestant communities there were protected from Catholic persecutions by the Habsburg. In the 16th century, the Ottomans supported the Calvinists in Transylvania and Hungary and practised religious toleration, giving almost complete freedom, although heavy taxation was imposed. Suleiman the Magnificent in particular supported John Sigismund of Hungary, allowing him to establish the Unitarian Church in Transylvania. By the end of the century, large parts of the population in Hungary thus became either Lutheran or Calvinist, to become the Reformed Church in Hungary.
In the 17th century Protestant communities again asked for Ottoman help against the Habsburg Catholics. When in 1606 Emperor Rudolph II suppressed religious liberty, Prince István Bocskay (1558–1606) of Transylvania, allied with the Ottoman Turks, achieved autonomy for Transylvania, including guaranteeing religious freedom in the rest of Hungary for a short time. In 1620, the Transylvanian Protestant prince Bethlen Gabor, fearful of the Catholic policies of Ferdinand II, requested a protectorate by Sultan Osman II, so that “the Ottoman Empire became the one and only ally of great-power status which the rebellious Bohemian states could muster after they had shaken off Habsburg rule and had elected Frederick V as a Protestant king”, Ambassadors were exchanged, with Heinrich Bitter visiting Istanbul in January 1620, and Mehmed Aga visiting Prague in July 1620. The Ottomans offered a force of 60,000 cavalry to Frederick and plans were made for an invasion of Poland with 400,000 troops in exchange for the payment of an annual tribute to the Sultan. The Ottomans defeated the Poles, which were supporting the Habsburg in the Thirty Years’ War, at the Battle of Cecora in September–October 1620, but were not able to further intervene efficiently before the Bohemian defeat at the Battle of the White Mountain in November 1620.
At the end of the century, the Hungarian leader Imre Thököly, in resistance to the anti-Protestant policies of the Habsburg, asked and obtained, the military help of the Ottoman Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa, leading to the 1683 Ottoman attack on the Habsburg Empire and the Battle of Vienna.
In the 16th century Hungary had become almost entirely Protestant, with first Lutheranism, then soon afterwards Calvinism, but following the Habsburg policy of Counter-Reformation the western part of the country finally returned to Catholicism, while the eastern part has managed to this day to remain strongly Protestant: “although the Habsburg succeeded in re-Catholicising Royal Hungary, east of the Tisza the Reformation remained almost intact in the spirit of peaceful coexistence between the three recognized nations and respect for their diverse creeds”.
Rich Protestant Transylvanian Saxon merchants traded with the Ottoman Empire and often donated Anatolian rugs to their churches as a wall decoration more according to their iconoclastic beliefs than the images of the saints used by the Catholics and the Orthodox. Churches like the Black Church of Brașov still hold collections of rugs.
At about the same time England also maintained a significant relationship with Persia. In 1616, a trade agreement was reached between Shah Abbas and the East India Company and in 1622 “a joint Anglo-Persian force expelled the Portuguese and Spanish traders from the Persian Gulf” in the Capture of Ormuz.
A group of English adventurers, led by Robert Shirley had a key role in modernizing the Persian army and developing its contacts with the West. In 1624, Robert Shirley led an embassy to England in order to obtain trade agreements.
These unique relations between Protestantism and Islam mainly took place during the 16th and 17th century. The ability of Protestant nations to disregard Papal bans, and therefore to establish freer commercial and other types of relations with Muslim and pagan countries, may partly explain their success in developing influence and markets in areas previously discovered by Spain and Portugal. Progressively however, Protestantism became able to consolidate itself and became less dependent on external help. At the same time, the power of the Ottoman Empire waned from its 16th century peak, making attempts at alliance and conciliation less relevant.
Eventually, relations between Protestantism and Islam have often tended to become conflicted. In the context of the United States kate spade bags, Protestant missionaries seem to have been active in portraying Islam in an unfavourable light, representing it as “the epitome of antichristian darkness and political tyranny”, in a way that helped construct in opposition an American national identity as “modern, democratic and Christian”. Some famous Protestants have criticized Islam like Pat Robertson Jerry Falwell, Jerry Vines, R. Albert Mohler, Jr. and Franklin Graham. The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy happened in Denmark, a mostly Protestant country.
In modern history, recent events such as Islamic terrorism the Persian Gulf War and the Iraq War have encouraged perceptions of unavoidable civilization conflicts between Islam and the rest of the world, giving rise to the theory of The Clash of Civilizations, as opposed to the Dialogue Among Civilizations. In 2009 however, the new United States President Barack Obama attempted to defuse this long period of conflict by stating[original research?]:
“Let me say this as clearly as I can: the United States is not and will never be at war with Islam. In fact, our partnership with the Muslim world is critical in rolling back a fringe ideology that people of all faiths reject.”
Besides the obvious differences between the two religious, there are also many similarities in their outlooks and attitudes to faith (especially with Sunni Islam), especially in respect to textual criticism, iconoclasm, tendencies to fundamentalism, rejection of marriage as a sacrament, or the rejection of monastic orders.
Islam and Protestantism have in common a reliance on textual criticism of the Book. This historical precedence combines to fact that Islam incorporates to a certain extent the Jewish and Christian traditions, recognizing the same God and defining Jesus as a prophet, as well as recognizing Hebrew prophets, thus having a claim to encompassing all the religions of the Book.
It should be noted that the Quran itself regards the Christian Bible as corrupt, and holds that Jesus was not physically crucified (Sura 4:156-159).
The rejection of images in worship, although more prominent in Islam, is a common point in Protestantism and Islam. This was already extensively recognized from the earliest times, as in the correspondence between Elizabeth I of England and her Ottoman Empire counterparts, in which she implied that Protestantism was closer to Islam than to Catholicism. This is also a point developed by Martin Luther in On War against the Turk, in which he praised the Ottomans for their rigorous iconoclasm:
“It is part of the Turks’ holiness, also, that they tolerate no images or pictures and are even holier than our destroyers of images. For our destroyers tolerate, and are glad to have, images on gulden, groschen, rings, and ornaments; but the Turk tolerates none of them and stamps nothing but letters on his coins.”
Rich Protestant Transylvanian Saxon merchants traded with the Ottoman Empire and often donated Anatolian rugs to their churches as a wall decoration more according to their iconoclastic beliefs than the images of the saints used by the Catholics and the Orthodox. Churches like the Black Church of Brasov still hold collections of such rugs.
Islam and Protestantism have in common that they are both based on a direct analysis of the scriptures (the Bible for Protestantism and the Quran for Islam). This can be contrasted to Catholicism in which knowledge is analysed, formalized and distributed by the existing structure of the Church. Islam and Protestantism are thus both based on “a rhetorical commitment to a universal mission”, when Catholicism is based on an international structure. This leads to possibilities of fundamentalism, based on the popular reinterpretation of scriptures by radical elements. The term “fundamentalism” was first used in America in the 1920, to describe “the consciously anti-modernist wing of Protestantism”.
Islamic and Protestant fundamentalism also tend to be very normative of individuals’ behaviours: “Religious fundamentalism in Protestantism and Islam is very concerned with norms surrounding gender, sexuality, and family”, although Protestant fundamentalism tends to focus on individual behaviour, whereas Islamic fundamentalism tends to develop laws for the community.
The most notable trend of Islamic fundamentalism, Salafism is based upon a literal reading of the Qur’an and Sunnah without relying on the interpretations of Islamic jurists or Imams, rejecting the need for Taqlid. Fundamentalist Protestantism is similar, in that the ‘traditions of men’ and the Church Fathers are rejected in favor of a literalist interpretation of the Bible, which is seen as inerrant. Islamic Fundamentalists and Protestant Fundamentalists both believe their respective holy texts to be inerrant/immutable.
Parallels have regularly been drawn in the similar attitudes of Islam and Protestantism towards the Scriptures. Some trends in Muslim revival have thus been defined as “Islamic Protestantism”. In a sense “Islamization is a political movement to combat Westernization using the methods of Western culture, namely a form of Protestantism within Islam itself”.
Islam and Protestantism share a common vitality in the modern world: “The two most dynamic religious movements in the contemporary world are what can loosely be called popular Protestantism and resurgent Islam”, although their approach to civil society is different.