Alejandro Guarello

Alejandro Guarello
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Alejandro Guarello bogner france, né le 21 août 1951 à Viña del Mar, est un compositeur et chef d’orchestre chilien. Il est l’auteur de plus de 65 œuvres de tous genres, vocales et instrumentales, incluant musique de chambre et symphonies, créées et publiées au Chili, aux États-Unis, en Europe et au Japon. Il est actuellement président de la Société chilienne du droit d’auteur et directeur de l’institut musical de l’université pontificale catholique du Chili.

Il commence ses études musicales en 1971 à l’université catholique de Valparaíso. Après quatre ans passés dans cet établissement, il se perfectionne auprès du compositeur et pianiste Cirilo Vila, avec qui il poursuit sa carrière de 1977 à 1982, jusqu’à l’obtention de la licence de composition de la faculté des arts de l’université du Chili Massif Bogner Ski. Durant cette période, il reçoit la commande d’une musique pour la Cantate pour les Droits de l’Homme, sur un texte du prêtre Esteban Gumucio Vives. Cette œuvre sera créée le 25 novembre 1978 en la cathédrale métropolitaine de Santiago soccer jerseys 2016 outlet.
En 1984 et 1985, Alejandro Guarello se rend en Italie pour compléter sa formation en composition. Deux bourses du gouvernement italien lui permettent de poursuivre ses études à Rome, Sienne et Milan.
Son premier enregistrement, en 1998, comprend des œuvres de musique de chambre composées entre 1979 et 1996. Depuis lors 14 autres disques ont été enregistrés robe maje.
En janvier 2009, il remplace le chanteur Fernando Ubiergo comme président de la Société chilienne du droit d’auteur : cette nomination est confirmée par un vote au sein de l’institution en mai de la même année. Fin mai 2011, Alejandro Guarello est réélu à ce poste.

The Purchase Price

The Purchase Price is a 1932 Pre-Code American drama film, which was directed by William Wellman and starring Barbara Stanwyck, George Brent, and Lyle Talbot. Adapted from the novel by Arthur Stringer, with a screenplay by Robert Lord, the film is about an attractive nightclub singer who leaves her criminal boyfriend and travels to Canada and becomes the mail-order bride of a humble farmer.

Joan Gordon (Barbara Stanwyck), a New York torch singer who has been performing since age 15, has left her wealthy criminal boyfriend, Eddie Fields (Lyle Talbot), for upstanding citizen Don Leslie (Hardie Albright) rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016. However, Don’s father has found out about her relationship with Eddie; she and Don break off their engagement, and she decides to leave town rather than return to Eddie. In Montreal, she changes her name and resumes performing; not long thereafter, one of Eddie’s men recognizes her and informs his boss. Unwilling to return to him, she trades places with her hotel’s maid (Leila Bennett), who had used Joan’s picture when corresponding with a North Dakota farmer in search of a mail-order bride. Offering the maid $100 (about 7 weeks’ wages) for the farmer’s address, Joan sets out to become the wife of Jim Gilson (George Brent), with only a vague idea of all the hardships of farm life during the height of the Great Depression.
Jim and Joan’s relationship gets off to a rocky start rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016; on their first night, she rejects his advances and forces him to sleep elsewhere. In the morning, she apologizes but he keeps his distance. Over time she falls in love with him, but he remains aloof. Meanwhile, he’s informed that he’ll lose his land if he can’t pay his overdue mortgage. He has developed a great strain of wheat and is sure it will bring a profit, but he has no way to keep foreclosure at bay long enough to plant and harvest a crop. A neighboring farmer, Bull McDowell (David Landau), offers to buy Jim’s land in exchange for Joan’s company, but Jim is unwilling to make such a bargain and thereby makes an enemy of Bull.
A little later rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016, Joan—who has become a very capable farmer’s wife—visits a neighbor who just gave birth with only her adolescent daughter by her side rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016. Joan cleans the home, prepares food, turns an old dress into diapers, and calms the frightened daughter (Anne Shirley). She braves a snowstorm to return home, where Jim has taken in a man who lost his way in the storm—Eddie. She pretends not to know him, but Eddie quickly tries to take her with him. Jim, angry at Joan because of her complicated past (and because he’s jealous, though he can’t yet admit that he cares about her), tells her to go with Eddie. She refuses and later asks Eddie privately for a loan to save Jim’s land.
The loan (which Jim thinks is an extension from the bank) enables them to stay on the farm until after the harvest. She continues to stand by him, but he remains distant. Then one night Bull torches part of the harvested-but-not-sold crop, and Joan and Jim fight to save it. Joan is injured, but they succeed—and her determination and dedication finally break through Jim’s reserve.
During the fight scene between Talbot and Brent, Wellman approached each actor privately with the instruction: “let him have it.” The actors worked the fight out between themselves beforehand. However, when Talbot flew back against a wall (as planned), his head struck a nail. “It just bled like mad. They had to take me over to the infirmary and sew me up.” Stanwyck’s rendition of “Take Me Away” marked the first time she sang onscreen.
The New York Times wrote that “many of its individual scenes are undeniably good, but the effect is of fifteen scenarists collaborating on a story without consulting each other. It seemed a bit hard on the cast.” NYT also called it “totally incomprehensible” and “one of the weirdest scenarios within the memory of man.”
Variety thought Stanwyck and Brent were “both 100% miscast”, while the Kansas City Star stated that “the picture has more entertainment value than the plot has logic.” The reviewer added, “Miss Stanwyck continues to exercise her uncanny ability to make the most phony heroines seem like human beings.”
Time reviewed the film as follows: “The picture hews close to the line of probability … [R]are until recently has been the cinema heroine who preferred the stupid poor man to the bright city fellow. The viewpoint of The Purchase Price is simple and masculine. It advertises the virtue of hard work and loyalty.”
The Purchase Price was released on VHS under MGM’s Forbidden Hollywood 1990s label. In addition to four other Wellman Pre-Code films, it was released to DVD as part of Turner Classic Movies’s 2009 Forbidden Hollywood, Vol. 3 collection in 2009.

Silice (maladie professionnelle)

Cet article décrit les critères administratifs pour qu’une pneumoconiose provoquée par la poussière de silice soit reconnue comme maladie professionnelle.
Ce sujet relève du domaine de la législation sur la protection sociale et a un caractère davantage juridique que médical. Pour la description clinique de la maladie se reporter à l’article suivant:

Fiche Maladie Professionnelle
Ce tableau définit les critères à prendre en compte pour qu’une silicose ou une autre pneumoconiose apparentée soit prise en charge au titre de la maladie professionnelle
Régime Général. Date de création : 2 Août 1945
Tableau N° 25 RG
Affections consécutives à l’inhalation de poussières minérales
renfermant de la silice cristalline (quartz, cristobalite, tridymite),
des silicates cristallins (kaolin, talc), du graphite ou de la houille.
Affections dues à l’inhalation de poussières de silice cristalline : quartz, cristobalite, tridymite.
Travaux exposant à l’inhalation de poussières renfermant de la silice cristalline, notamment :
caractérisée par des lésions alvéolointerstitielles bilatérales mises en évidence par des examens radiographiques ou tomodensitométriques ou par des constatations anatomopathologiques (lipoprotéinose) lorsqu’elles existent ; ces signes ou ces constatations s’accompagnent de troubles fonctionnels respiratoires d’évolution rapide.
(sous réserve d’une durée minimale d’exposition de 6 mois)
forage, d’abattage, d’extraction et de transport de minerais ou de roches renfermant de la silice cristalline ; Travaux en chantiers de creusement de galeries et fonçage de puits ou de bures dans les mines ; Concassage, broyage, tamisage et manipulation effectués à sec, de minerais ou de roches renfermant de la silice cristalline ;
caractérisée par des lésions interstitielles micronodulaires ou nodulaires bilatérales révélées par des examens radiographiques ou tomodensitométriques ou par des constatations anatomo-pathologiques lorsqu’elles existent ; ces signes ou ces constatations s’accompagnent ou non de troubles fonctionnels respiratoires. Complications : – cardiaque : – Insuffisance ventriculaire droite caractérisée. – Pleuro-pulmonaires : – Tuberculose et autre mycobactériose (Mycobacterium xenopi, M. avium intracellulare sandro femme, M. kansaii) surajoutée et caractérisée ; – Nécrose cavitaire aseptique d’une masse pseudotumorale ; – Aspergillose intracavitaire confirmée par la sérologie ; – non spécifiques : – Pneumothorax spontané ; – Surinfection ou suppuration bactérienne bronchopulmonaire, subaiguë ou chronique. Manifestations pathologiques associées à des signes radiologiques ou des lé sions de nature silicotique : – cancer bronchopulmonaire primitif ; – lésions pleuro-pneumoconiotiques à type rhumatoïde (syndrome de Caplan-Collinet).
(sous réserve d’une durée minimale d’exposition de 5 ans)
silice cristalline ; Fabrication et manutention de produits abrasifs, de poudres à nettoyer ou autres produits renfermant de la silice cristalline ; Travaux de ponçage et sciage à sec de matériaux renfermant de la silice cristalline ; Extraction, refente, taillage, lissage et polissage de l’ardoise  sandro soldes; Utilisation de poudre d’ardoise (schiste en poudre) comme charge en caoutchouterie ou dans la préparation de mastic ou aggloméré ; Fabrication de carborundum, de verre maillots de foot vente, de porcelaine, de faïence et autres produits céramiques et de produits réfractaires ; Travaux de fonderie exposant aux poussières de sables renfermant de la silice cristalline : décochage, ébarbage et dessablage ; Travaux de meulage, polissage, aiguisage effectués à sec, au moyen de meules renfermant de la silice cristalline ; Travaux de construction, d’entretien et de démolition exposant à l’inhalation de poussières renfermant de la silice cristalline ; Travaux de calcination de terres à diatomées et utilisations des produits de cette calcination ; Travaux de confection de prothèses dentaires. Travaux de décapage ou de polissage au jet de sable contenant de la silice cristalline.
progressive.
(sous réserve d’une durée minimale d’exposition de 10 ans)
Affections dues à l’inhalation de poussières minérales renfermant des silicates cristallins (kaolin, talc) ou du graphite :
35 ans (sous réserve d’une durée d’exposition de 10 ans)
Travaux exposant à l’inhalation de poussières minérales renfermant des silicates cristallins (kaolin, talc) ou du graphite, notamment :
lésions interstitielles bilatérales révélées par des examens radiographiques ou tomodensitométriques ou par des constatations anatomo-pathologiques lorsqu’elles existent, que ces signes radiologiques ou ces constatations s’accompagnent ou non de troubles fonctionnels respiratoires :
utilisation industrielle du kaolin : faïence, poterie.
conditionnement du talc  Massif Bogner Ski; Utilisation du talc comme lubrifiant ou comme charge dans l’apprêt du papier, dans la préparation de poudres cosmétiques, dans les mélanges de caoutchouterie et dans certaines peintures.
usinage, utilisation du graphite, notamment comme réfractaire ; Fabrication d’électrodes.
Affections dues à l’inhalation de poussières de houille :
Travaux exposant à l’inhalation de poussières de houille, notamment : travaux au fond dans les mines de houille.
lésions interstitielles bilatérales révélées par des examens radiographiques ou tomodenistométriques ou par des constatations anatomopathologiques lorsqu’elles existent, que ces signes radiologiques ou ces constatations s’accompagnent ou non de troubles fonctionnels respiratoires.
(sous réserve d’une durée minimale d’exposition de 10 ans)
– cardiaque : – Insuffisance ventriculaire droite caractérisée ; – pleuropulmonaires : – Tuberculose et autre mycobactériose (Mycobacterium xenopi, M. avium intracellulare, M. kansaii) surajoutée et caractérisée ; – Nécrose cavitaire aseptique d’une masse pseudotumorale ; – Aspergillose intracavitaire confirmée par la sérologie ; – non spécifiques : – Surinfection ou suppuration bactérienne bronchopulmonaire, subaiguë ou chronique ; – Pneumothorax spontané. Manifestation pathologique associée : – lésions pleuro-pneumoconiotiques à type rhumatoïde (syndrome de Caplan-Collinet).
diffuse non régressive, d’apparence primitive. Cette affection doit être confirmée par un examen radiographique ou par tomodensitométrie en coupes millimétriques ou par des constatations anatomo-pathologiques lorsqu’elles existent. Complications de cette affection : – insuffisance respiratoire chronique caractérisée ; – insuffisance ventriculaire droite caractérisée ; – tuberculose et autre mycobactériose (Mycobacterium xenopi, M. avium intracellulare, M. kansaii) surajoutée et caractérisée ; – pneumothorax spontané.
(sous réserve d’une durée minimale d’exposition de 10 ans)
Date mise à jour : 28 Mars 2003
Fiche Maladie Professionnelle
Ce tableau définit les critères à prendre en compte pour qu’une silicose ou une autre pneumoconiose apparentée soit prise en charge au titre de la maladie professionnelle
Régime Agricole. Date de création : 17 Juin 1955
Tableau N° 22 RA
-PNEUMOCONIOSES CONSECUTIVES A L’INHALATION DE POUSSIERES MINERALES RENFERMANT DE LA SILICE LIBRE
provoquées par ces poussières ; ces affections sont caractérisées soit par des signes radiographiques ou, éventuellement, tomodensitométriques, soit par des constations anatomopathologiques lorsqu’elles existent, que ces signes ou ces constatations s’accompagnent ou non de troubles fonctionnels.
A1. – Silicose aiguë : pneumoconiose caractérisée par des lésions alvéolointerstitielles bilatérales mises en évidence par des examens radiographiques ou tomodensitométriques ou par des constatations anatomopathologiques (lipoprotéinose) lorsqu’elles existent ; ces signes ou ces constatations s’accompagnent de troubles fonctionnels respiratoires d’évolution rapide.
des dispositions du décret pris en application de l’article L 461-7 du Code de la sécurité sociale).
de poussières de silice libre, effectués dans une exploitation ou une entreprise relevant du régime agricole de protection sociale.
a) Complication cardiaque : Insuffisance ventriculaire droite caractérisée.
b) Complications pleuropulmonaires : Tuberculose ou autre mycobactériose surajoutée et caractérisée ; Nécrose cavitaire aseptique ; Aspergillose intracavitaire confirmée par la sérologie.
c) Complications non spécifiques :
Pneumothorax spontané ; Suppuration broncho-pulmonaire subaiguë ou chronique ; Insuffisance respiratoire aiguë nécessitant des soins intensifs en milieu spécialisé.
d) Association d’une pneumoconiose avec une sclérodermie systémique progressive (syndrome d’Erasmus).
e) Lésions pleuro-pneumoconiotiques à type rhumatoïde (syndrome de Caplan-Colinet).
Date mise à jour : 19 Juin 1998
Fiche Maladie Professionnelle
Ce tableau définit les critères à prendre en compte pour qu’une affection non pneumoconiotique due à la silice soit prise en charge au titre de la maladie professionnelle
Régime Agricole. Date de création : 21 Août 1993
Tableau N° 22 bis RA
AFFECTIONS NON PNEUMOCONIOTIQUES DUES A L’INHALATION DE POUSSIERES MINERALES RENFERMANT DE LA SILICE LIBRE
progressive.
durée d’exposition de 10 ans)
Date mise à jour :

Chikhali (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Chikhali Vidhan Sabha constituency (Marathi: चिखली विधान सभा मतदारसंघ) is one of the 288 constituencies of Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha and one of the seven which are located in Buldhana district.
It is a part of the Buldhana Lok Sabha constituency along with five other Vidhan Sabha (assembly) constituencies, viz. Buldhana, Sindkhed Raja, Mehkar 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, Khamgaon and Jalgaon (Jamod),
The seventh Malkapur from the Buldhana district is a part of the Raver Lok Sabha constituency from neighbouring Jalgaon district.
As per orders of Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly constituencies Order rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016, 2008 rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016, No. 23 Chikhli (Vidhan Sabha constituency) is composed of the following: 1. Chikhli Tehsil (Part), Revenue Circle – Undri, Amdapur, Eklara, Hatni, Kolara, Chikhli and Chikhli (MC), 2. Buldhana Tehsil (Part) 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, Revenue Circle – Raipur, Dhad and Mhasla Bk of the Bildhana district.
Rahul Siddhvinayak Bondre of the Indian National Congress represents the constituency in the 13th Maharashtra Legislative Assembly.

Youth Bandy World Championship

Bandy World Championship for youth teams are held in a number of age classes for boys and young men and in one age class for girls playing bandy. The tournaments are governed by the Federation of International Bandy.
The following tournaments are held regularly:
G17 is sometimes written as F17 and the Y designations may also be written with a U.

The first World Championship G17 was held in 2009 and it has since been held every other year.
The first World Championship Y16 was held in 1994. Starting with 2002, it has been for Y15 teams since.
The first World Championship Y17 was held in 1975, the next in 1979 juicy couture online sale. It is worth noting business casual dresses for women, that the Soviet Union took part in both 1975 and 1979 but did not win a medal until the third installment in 1981 discount nike jerseys online 2016. In 1995 and 1997 it was Y18 teams instead of Y17.
World Championship Y19 has been held biannually since 1968. In 1994 and 1996 it was Y20 teams instead.
World Championship Y23 were held in 1990 and in 1992, but then the next was not held until 2011 2016 Bogner Ski Jackets.

Toroku arsenic disease

Toroku arsenic disease (土呂久砒素公害, Toroku hiso kōgai?) was a disease resulting from air and water pollution from a refinery at a mine at Toroku, located in Takachiho, Nishiusuki District, Miyazaki, Japan.
It emitted arsenic-containing air, resulting in patients with chronic arsenic poisoning producing skin changes, skin cancers and sometimes lung cancer. The Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd Maje Spring Summer 2016.

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, which bought the right of mining was sued by the patients for health damage, but 15 years later, the lawsuit ended with a compromise.[citation needed]

The pollution at Toroku dates back to 1690 according to A Table of Public Hazards of Japan
Seven patients were examined extensively at Kumamoto University, and they were diagnosed as having chronic arsenic poisoning due to pollution, in a report published in 1973. The same team increased the number of patients to 48 in 1976 Cheongsam Dresses, while Hotta and his co-workers made extensive studies of the pollution.
Nakamura et al business casual dresses. characterized the condition by pigmentation which is either macular or diffuse, appearing both in covered and exposed areas. Punctate depigmentation appears in raindrop shapes, and hard keratoses are either localized or diffuse. Malignant changes may occur. They pointed out nasal septum defects. The environmental agency first indicated the skin and ENT findings of nasal scar or septum defect as necessary symptoms for the Toroku Pollution.
In addition to the skin and ENT findings, neuritis was added as a criterion of chronic arsenic poisoning. Bowen’s disease, Lung cancer, and cancer of the urinary organ were added as appearing following chronic arsenic poisoning.

Brendale, Queensland

Brendale is a suburb in Moreton Bay Region, Queensland, Australia 2016 hermes birkin. It is north of Brisbane 2016 chanel tassen, the state capital, located immediately south of Strathpine on the South Pine River. The origin of the suburb name is from the name given to a horse stud established by William Bowden in the early 1960s.
Brendale is mostly an industrial suburb, although several parks exist within it. It contains a Powerlink 275/110 kV electrical transmission substation called South Pine Substation, as well as a waste treatment plant.
In the 2011 census, Brendale recorded a population of 1,847 people, 51% female and 49% male.
The median age of the Brendale population was 34 years, 3 years below the national median of 37.
65.3% of people living in Brendale were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 10%, India 3.8%, England 3.5% prada zonnebril 2016, Philippines 1 2016 chanel tassen.5%, Fiji 0.9%.
83% of people spoke only English at home; the next most common languages were 1.8% Punjabi, 0.9% Tagalog, 0.9% Hindi, 0.8% Shona, 0.8% Japanese.

Chungcheong dialect

The Chungcheong dialects of Korean (Hangul: 충청도 방언/사투리; Hanja: 忠淸道方言) are spoken in the Chungcheong (Hoseo) region of South Korea, including the city of Daejon 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp.
Chungcheong dialect can be divided into two categories: the Northern Chungcheong dialect, notable for its similarity capital Gyeonggi region speech and the Southern dialect 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, closer to the Jeolla dialect. Chungcheong dialect is notable for its slow enunciations and unique jargon. It usually replaces the standard ~겠다 (gettda) at the end of sentences with ‘~것다’ (geotda) and uses phrases such as ‘기여’ (giyeo) (yes) instead of the standard ‘맞다’ (matda) or ‘근디’ (geunji) (but) instead of ‘그런데’ (geureonde). Chungcheong people may occasionally pronounce the ending form ‘~이니까’ (inikka) with ‘~이니께’ (inikke). Similar to the Jeolla dialect, Chungcheong dialect often transforms the vowel ㅐ with ㅕ instead of ㅑ 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, which may be more common in other dialects. However 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor, due to the proliferation of Seoul standardization in cities such as Daejon, Chungcheong dialect is difficult to hear outside of the rural regions of the province.

J. M. Barrie

Œuvres principales
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James Matthew Barrie, plus connu sous la signature de J. M. Barrie (Kirriemuir, 9 mai 1860 – Londres, 19 juin 1937), 1er baronnet, est un écrivain et dramaturge écossais, célèbre pour avoir créé le personnage de Peter Pan adidas soccer jerseys 2016 outlet.

Né le 9 mai 1860, à Kirriemuir, dans le comté d’Angus, en Écosse il est le neuvième enfant, et le troisième garçon, du couple formé par David et Margaret Barrie, née Ogilvy. Son père est un ouvrier tisserand. Sa mère, une femme forte et intelligente, aura une importance capitale dans sa vie. Elle lui donne tout d’abord le goût de la fiction en lui lisant des histoires, les Mille et une nuits, le Pilgrims’s Progress de Bunyan ou le Robinson Crusoë de Defoë.
Le fils préféré de sa mère, David, meurt alors que Barrie n’a que six ans. Le petit Jimmy (diminutif de James) essayera de le remplacer dans le cœur de sa mère, allant jusqu’à s’habiller avec les vêtements du défunt pour s’identifier à lui. L’enfance de J. M. Barrie est marquée par ce drame et le petit James se construit sur une fêlure. Toute sa vie, il essaye d’emporter l’amour de sa mère, mais n’y parvient jamais tout à fait. Il se donne mission de consoler sa mère de cette perte et son besoin d’écrire provient très probablement d’une volonté de récréer le monde en niant le drame, le thème de la jeunesse éternelle sera récurrent dans son œuvre. Et on retrouve un personnage nommé David dans plusieurs de ses œuvres ainsi qu’un certain nombre de fantômes…
J. M. Barrie rejoint son frère aîné devenu professeur à Glasgow en 1868, il y fréquentera plus tard les écoles de Forfar et Dumfries. En 1872 la famille Barrie emménage dans une maison plus vaste et le petit James se passionne pour Walter Scott.
Durant ses années d’étude à Glasgow, James Barrie se fait des amis (Stuart Gordon, Welwood Anderson), il découvre Shakespeare et le théâtre et monte une troupe d’amateurs avec ses camarades maillots de foot.
Il entre à l’Université d’Édimbourg en 1878, d’où il ressort, quatre ans plus tard, muni d’un “Master of arts”. Il travaille ensuite comme journaliste pour le Journal de Nottingham : c’est là qu’il contracte l’habitude de fumer la pipe qu’il exaltera dans My Lady Nicotine en 1890. Il s’installe à Londres, à son compte, en 1885 et collabore à divers journaux. Il se fait remarquer en 1889 par la publication d’un recueil de chroniques, Les Onze d’Édimbourg.
En 1890 Barrie compose une petite pièce, Le Fantôme d’Ibsen, qui ridiculise le dramaturge norvégien très apprécié sur les scènes londoniennes. Son roman, The little minister remporte un certain succès en 1891 et en 1892 notre jeune auteur rencontre Conan Doyle avec qui il devient ami.
Sa pièce, A professor’s love story, rencontre également un grand succès en 1894 et il épouse, la même année, l’actrice Mary Ansell, mais le mariage sera un échec. Sans enfant, le couple divorcera en 1909 à la demande de l’épouse (qui prendra un amant) et contre la volonté de l’écrivain qui s’oppose à la séparation. J. M. Barrie était un homme menu et fluet, de petite taille

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. On a parfois souligné sa démarche quasi enfantine (tel son héros Peter qui ne veut pas grandir). On suppose que ce personnage atypique était asexuel et que ce fut l’une des raisons du divorce (cf. syndrome de Peter Pan).
En 1897, dans le parc de Kensington, James Barrie rencontre les enfants Llewelyn Davies (George, Jack et Peter) pour lesquels il imaginera les aventures de Peter Pan. Notre auteur se lie aux parents, Sylvia, fille de l’écrivain George du Maurier et Arthur, avocat respecté.
En 1902 James Barrie est devenu un dramaturge incontournable ; deux de ses pièces triomphent sur les scènes londoniennes (L’admirable Crichton et Quality Street). Le personnage de Peter Pan apparaît pour la première fois dans un roman fantaisiste intitulé Le petit oiseau blanc.
La carrière de Barrie n’aura dès lors guère d’interruption. Après son divorce, Sylvia Llewelyn Davies — veuve depuis 1906 — meurt à son tour d’un cancer. Le dramaturge, qui n’a pas d’enfants, devient le tuteur légal des garçons de ses amis. Pour Daphné du Maurier (cousine des enfants Llewelyn Davies), il est « Oncle James ».
La version romanesque de Peter Pan, Peter and Wendy est publiée en 1911. Le décès de George Llewelyn Davies sur le front en 1915 et la mort de son frère par noyade en 1921 assombrissent les années d’après guerre.
Il connaît encore le succès entre 1917 et 1920 avec A kiss for Cinderella, Dear Brutus et Mary Rose.
La carrière de James Barrie n’a pas manqué d’honneurs : un titre de baronnet lui avait été décerné en 1913. Il recevra l’Ordre du Mérite en 1922, le rectorat de l’université de St Andrews — devant laquelle il prononcera une émouvante allocution (Courage, 1922) —, puis les fonctions de chancelier de l’Université d’Édimbourg.
Il revient au roman en 1930 avec Adieu, Miss Julie Logan, un récit fantastique.
Barrie meurt d’une pneumonie le 19 juin 1937. Il est enterré dans le cimetière de Kirriemuir, son lieu de naissance, aux côtés de ses parents et de sa fratrie. Sa maison natale, au 4 Brechin Road, est entretenue et transformée en musée par le National Trust for Scotland.
Il fut un ami très intime de la famille Llewelyn Davies, surtout des enfants, qui lui inspirèrent les personnages de Peter Pan, et pour qui il était « l’oncle Jim ». Il cultivait une amitié ambiguë, mais respectueuse avec Sylvia Llewelyn Davies, la mère des enfants.
Lorsque Arthur Llewelyn Davies mourut en 1907, Barrie était proche des Davies, en leur fournissant un soutien financier adidas soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, les revenus de sa pièce Peter Pan et d’autres travaux, pourvoyant largement aux besoins de subsistance et d’éducation des enfants. Il proposa à Sylvia de l’épouser, ce qu’elle refusa.
Cette période de la vie de J. M. Barrie est retracée dans le film Neverland (avec quelques adaptations par rapport à la vraie histoire).
Sylvia mourut en 1910, en demandant que James Matthew Barrie soit l’administrateur et le tuteur de ses garçons, avec sa mère Emma, son frère Guy Du Maurier et le frère d’Arthur, Compton. Cela montre aussi sa confiance en Barrie comme protecteur de ses fils et son désir qu’ils le traitent avec une confiance absolue et sincérité. Il s’occupa donc des garçons pendant leur enfance et leur adolescence, devint leur tuteur et traita ses pupilles George, Jack, Peter, Michael et Nicholas comme ses fils.
Deux des enfants connurent un destin tragique qui affecta Barrie très profondément. George fut tué en 1915 pendant la Première Guerre mondiale ; Michael, avec qui Barrie avait tenu une correspondance tous les jours jusqu’à l’université, se noya en 1921 avec son ami Rupert Buxton, à Sandford Lock près d’Oxford, environ un mois avant son 21e anniversaire.
Peter devint éditeur (Peter Davies Publishing). Mais, à la suite d’une grave dépression nerveuse, il se suicida en se jetant sous une rame de métro à la station « Sloane Square » à Londres, le 5 avril 1960. Il était âgé de 63 ans.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :
La rencontre de J. M. Barrie avec la famille Llewelyn Davies et la création de Peter Pan est racontée de manière très éloignée de la réalité dans le film Neverland.

Edward Wright (mathematician)

Edward Wright (baptised 8 October 1561; died November 1615) was an English mathematician and cartographer noted for his book Certaine Errors in Navigation (1599; 2nd ed., 1610), which for the first time explained the mathematical basis of the Mercator projection, and set out a reference table giving the linear scale multiplication factor as a function of latitude, calculated for each minute of arc up to a latitude of 75°

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. This was in fact a table of values of the integral of the secant function, and was the essential step needed to make practical both the making and the navigational use of Mercator charts.
Wright was born at Garveston and educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow from 1587 to 1596. In 1589 the College granted him leave after Elizabeth I requested that he carry out navigational studies with a raiding expedition organised by the Earl of Cumberland to the Azores to capture Spanish galleons. The expedition’s route was the subject of the first map to be prepared according to Wright’s projection, which was published in Certaine Errors in 1599. The same year, Wright created and published the first world map produced in England and the first to use the Mercator projection since Gerardus Mercator’s original 1569 map.
Not long after 1600 Wright was appointed as surveyor to the New River project, which successfully directed the course of a new man-made channel to bring clean water from Ware, Hertfordshire, to Islington, London. Around this time, Wright also lectured mathematics to merchant seamen, and from 1608 or 1609 was mathematics tutor to the son of James I, the heir apparent Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, until the latter’s very early death at the age of 18 in 1612. A skilled designer of mathematical instruments, Wright made models of an astrolabe and a pantograph, and a type of armillary sphere for Prince Henry. In the 1610 edition of Certaine Errors he described inventions such as the “sea-ring” that enabled mariners to determine the magnetic variation of the compass, the sun’s altitude and the time of day in any place if the latitude was known; and a device for finding latitude when one was not on the meridian using the height of the pole star.
Apart from a number of other books and pamphlets, Wright translated John Napier’s pioneering 1614 work which introduced the idea of logarithms from Latin into English. This was published after Wright’s death as A Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithmes (1616). Wright’s work influenced, among other persons, Dutch astronomer and mathematician Willebrord Snellius; Adriaan Metius, the geometer and astronomer from Holland; and the English mathematician Richard Norwood, who calculated the length of a degree on a great circle of the earth using a method proposed by Wright.

The younger son of Henry and Margaret Wright, Edward Wright was born in the village of Garveston in Norfolk, East Anglia Maje Spring Summer 2016, and was baptised there on 8 October 1561. It is possible that he followed in the footsteps of his elder brother Thomas (died 1579) and went to school in Hardingham. The family was of modest means, and he matriculated at Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge, on 8 December 1576 as a sizar. Sizars were students of limited means who were charged lower fees and obtained free food and/or lodging and other assistance during their period of study, often in exchange for performing work at their colleges.
Wright was conferred a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in 1580–1581. He remained a scholar at Caius, receiving his Master of Arts (M.A.) there in 1584, and holding a fellowship between 1587 and 1596. At Cambridge, he was a close friend of Robert Devereux, later the Second Earl of Essex, and met him to discuss his studies even in the weeks before Devereux’s rebellion against Elizabeth I in 1600–1601. In addition, he came to know the mathematician Henry Briggs; and the soldier and astrologer Christopher Heydon, who was also Devereux’s friend. Heydon later made astronomical observations with instruments Wright made for him.
In 1589, two years after being appointed to his fellowship, Wright was requested by Elizabeth I to carry out navigational studies with a raiding expedition organised by the Earl of Cumberland to the Azores to capture Spanish galleons. The Queen effectively ordered Caius to grant him leave of absence for this purpose, although the College expressed this more diplomatically by granting him a sabbatical “by Royal mandate”. Wright participated in the confiscation of “lawful” prizes from the French, Portuguese and Spanish – Derek Ingram, a life fellow of Caius, has called him “the only Fellow of Caius ever to be granted sabbatical leave in order to engage in piracy”. Wright sailed with Cumberland in the Victory from Plymouth on 8 June 1589; they returned to Falmouth on 27 December of the same year. An account of the expedition is appended to Wright’s work Certaine Errors of Navigation (1599), and while it refers to Wright in the third person it is believed to have been written by him.
In Wright’s account of the Azores expedition, he listed as one of the expedition’s members a “Captaine Edwarde Carelesse, alias Wright, who in S. Frauncis Drakes West-Indian voiage was Captaine of the Hope”. In another work, The Haven-finding Art (1599) (see below), Wright stated that “the time of my first employment at sea” was “now more than tenne yeares since”. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography asserts that during the expedition Wright called himself “Captain Edward Carelesse”, and that he was also the captain of the Hope in Sir Francis Drake’s voyage of 1585–1586 to the West Indies, which evacuated Sir Walter Raleigh’s Colony of Virginia. One of the colonists was the mathematician Thomas Harriot, and if the Dictionary is correct it is probable that on the return journey to England Wright and Harriot became acquainted and discussed navigational mathematics. However, in a 1939 article, E.J.S. Parsons and W.F. Morris note that in Capt. Walter Bigges and Lt. Crofts’ book A Summarie and True Discourse of Sir Frances Drakes West Indian Voyage (1589), Edward Careless was referred to as the commander of the Hope, but Wright was not mentioned. Further, while Wright spoke several times of his participation in the Azores expedition, he never alluded to any other voyage. Although the reference to his “first employment” in The Haven-finding Art suggests an earlier venture, there is no evidence that he went to the West Indies. Gonville and Caius College holds no records showing that Wright was granted leave before 1589. There is nothing to suggest that Wright ever went to sea again after his expedition with the Earl of Cumberland.
Wright resumed his Cambridge fellowship upon returning from the Azores in 1589, but it appears that he soon moved to London for he was there with Christopher Heydon making observations of the sun between 1594 and 1597, and on 8 August 1595 Wright married Ursula Warren (died 1625) at the parish church of St. Michael, Cornhill, in the City of London. They had a son, Samuel (1596–1616), who was himself admitted as a sizar at Caius on 7 July 1612. The St. Michael parish register also contains references to other children of Wright, all of whom died before 1617. Wright resigned his fellowship in 1596.
Wright helped the mathematician and globe maker Emery Molyneux to plot coastlines on his terrestrial globe, and translated some of the explanatory legends into Latin. Molyneux’s terrestrial and celestial globes, the first to be manufactured in England, were published in late 1592 or early 1593, and Wright explained their use in his 1599 work Certaine Errors in Navigation. He dedicated the book to Cumberland, to whom he had presented a manuscript of the work in 1592, stating in the preface it was through Cumberland that he “was first moved, and received maintenance to divert my mathematical studies, from a theorical speculation in the Universitie, to the practical demonstration of the use of Navigation”.
The most significant aspect of the book was Wright’s method for dividing the meridian; an explanation of how he had constructed a table for the division; and the uses of this information for navigation. Essentially, the problem that occupied Wright was how to depict accurately a globe on a two-dimensional map according to the projection used by Gerardus Mercator in his map of 1569. Mercator’s projection was advantageous for nautical purposes as it represented lines of constant true bearing or true course, known as loxodromes or rhumb lines, as straight lines. However, Mercator had not explained his method.
On a globe, circles of latitude (also known as parallels) get smaller as they move away from the Equator towards the North or South Pole. Thus, in the Mercator projection, when a globe is “unwrapped” on to a rectangular map, the parallels need to be stretched to the length of the Equator. In addition, parallels are further apart as they approach the poles. Wright compiled a table with three columns. The first two columns contained the degrees and minutes of latitudes for parallels spaced 10 minutes apart on a sphere, while the third column had the parallel’s projected distance from the Equator. Any cartographer or navigator could therefore lay out a Mercator grid for himself by consulting the table. Wright explained:
I first thought of correcting so many gross errors … in the sea chart, by increasing the distances of the parallels, from the equinoctial towards the poles, in such sort, that at every point of latitude in the chart, a part of the meridian might have the same proportion to the like part of the parallel, that it has in the globe.
While the first edition of Certaine Errors contained an abridged table six pages in length, in the second edition which appeared in 1610 Wright published a full table across 23 pages with figures for parallels at one-minute intervals. The table is remarkably accurate – American geography professor Mark Monmonier wrote a computer program to replicate Wright’s calculations, and determined that for a Mercator map of the world 3 feet (0.91 m) wide, the greatest discrepancy between Wright’s table and the program was only 0.00039 inches (0.0099 mm) on the map. In the second edition Wright also incorporated various improvements, including proposals for determining the magnitude of the Earth and reckoning common linear measurements as a proportion of a degree on the Earth’s surface “that they might not depend on the uncertain length of a barley-corn”; a correction of errors arising from the eccentricity of the eye when making observations using the cross-staff; amendments in tables of declinations and the positions of the sun and the stars, which were based on observations he had made together with Christopher Heydon using a 6-foot (1.8 m) quadrant; and a large table of the variation of the compass as observed in different parts of the world, to show that it is not caused by any magnetic pole. He also incorporated a translation of Rodrigo Zamorano’s Compendio de la Arte de Navegar (Compendium of the Art of Navigation, Seville, 1581; 2nd ed., 1588).
Wright was prompted to publish the book after two incidents of his text, which had been prepared some years earlier, being used without attribution. He had allowed his table of meridional parts to be published by Thomas Blundeville in his Exercises (1594) and in William Barlow’s The Navigator’s Supply (1597), although only Blundeville acknowledged Wright by name. However, an experienced navigator, believed to be Abraham Kendall, borrowed a draft of Wright’s manuscript and, unknown to him, made a copy of it which he took on Sir Francis Drake’s 1595 expedition to the West Indies. In 1596 Kendall died at sea. The copy of Wright’s work in his possession was brought back to London and wrongly believed to be by Kendall, until the Earl of Cumberland passed it to Wright and he recognised it as his work. Also around this time, the Dutch cartographer Jodocus Hondius borrowed Wright’s draft manuscript for a short time after promising not to publish its contents without his permission. However, Hondius then employed Wright’s calculations without acknowledging him for several regional maps and in his world map published in Amsterdam in 1597. This map is often referred to as the “Christian Knight Map” for its engraving of a Christian knight battling sin, the flesh and the Devil. Although Hondius sent Wright a letter containing a faint apology, Wright condemned Hondius’s deceit and greed in the preface to Certaine Errors. He wryly commented: “But the way how this [Mercator projection] should be done, I learned neither of Mercator, nor of any man els. And in that point I wish I had beene as wise as he in keeping it more charily to myself”.
The first map to be prepared according to Wright’s projection was published in his book, and showed the route of Cumberland’s expedition to the Azores. A manuscript version of this map is preserved at Hatfield House; it is believed to have been drawn about 1595. Following this, Wright created a new world map, the first map of the globe to be produced in England and the first to use the Mercator projection since Gerardus Mercator’s 1569 original. Based on Molyneux’s terrestrial globe, it corrected a number of errors in the earlier work by Mercator. The map, often called the Wright–Molyneux Map, first appeared in the second volume of Richard Hakluyt’s The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation (1599). Unlike many contemporary maps and charts which contained fantastic speculations about unexplored lands, Wright’s map has a minimum of detail and blank areas wherever information was lacking. The map was one of the earliest to use the name “Virginia”. Shakespeare alluded to the map in Twelfth Night (1600–1601), when Maria says of Malvolio: “He does smile his face into more lynes, than is in the new Mappe, with the augmentation of the Indies.” Another world map, larger and with updated details, appeared in the second edition of Certaine Errors (1610).
Wright translated into English De Havenvinding (1599) by the Flemish mathematician and engineer Simon Stevin, which appeared in the same year as The Haven-Finding Art, or the Way to Find any Haven or Place at Sea, by the Latitude and Variation. He also wrote the preface to physician and scientist William Gilbert’s great work De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (The Magnet, Magnetic Bodies, and the Great Magnet the Earth, 1600), in which Gilbert described his experiments which led to the conclusion that the Earth was magnetic, and introduced the term electricus to describe the phenomenon of static electricity produced by rubbing amber (called ēlectrum in Classical Latin, derived from ‘ήλεκτρον (elektron) in Ancient Greek). According to the mathematician and physician Mark Ridley, chapter 12 of book 4 of De Magnete, which explained how astronomical observations could be used to determine the magnetic variation, was actually Wright’s work.
Gilbert had invented a dip-compass and compiled a table recording the dip of the needle below the horizon. Wright believed that this device would prove to be extremely useful in determining latitude and, with the help of Blundeville and Briggs, wrote a small pamphlet called The Making, Description and Use of the Two Instruments for Seamen to find out the Latitude … First Invented by Dr. Gilbert. It was published in 1602 in Blundeville’s book The Theoriques of the Seuen Planets. That same year he authored The Description and Use of the Sphære (not published till 1613), and in 1605 published a new edition of the widely used work The Safegarde of Saylers.
Wright also developed a reputation as a surveyor on land. He prepared “a plat of part of the waye whereby a newe River may be brought from Uxbridge to St. James, Whitehall, Westminster [,] the Strand, St Giles, Holbourne and London”, However, according to a 1615 paper in Latin in the annals of Gonville and Caius College, he was prevented from bringing this plan to fruition “by the tricks of others”. Nonetheless, early in the first decade of the 17th century, he was appointed by Sir Hugh Myddelton as surveyor to the New River project, which successfully directed the course of a new man-made channel to bring clean water from Chadwell Spring at Ware, Hertfordshire, to Islington, London. Although the distance in a straight line from Ware to London is only slightly more than 20 miles (32 km), the project required a high degree of surveying skill on Wright’s part as it was necessary for the river to take a route of over 40 miles following the 100-foot (30 m) contour line on the west side of the Lea Valley. As the technology of the time did not extend to large pumps or pipes, the water flow had to depend on gravity through canals or aqueducts over an average fall of 5.5 inches a mile (approximately 8.7 centimetres per kilometre).
Work on the New River started in 1608 – the date of a monument at Chadwell Spring – but halted near Wormley, Hertfordshire, in 1610. The stoppage has been attributed to factors such as Myddelton facing difficulties in raising funds, and landowners along the route opposing the acquisition of their lands on the ground that the river would turn their meadows into “bogs and quagmires”. Although the landowners petitioned Parliament, they did not succeed in having the legislation authorising the project repealed prior to Parliament being dissolved in 1611; the work resumed later that year. The New River was officially opened on 29 September 1613 by the Lord Mayor of London

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, Sir John Swinnerton, at the Round Pond, New River Head Blue Cup toothpaste dispenser, in Islington. It still supplies the capital with water today.
For some time Wright had urged that a navigation lectureship be instituted for merchant seamen, and he persuaded Admiral Sir William Monson, who had been on Cumberland’s Azores expedition of 1589, to encourage a stipend to be paid for this. At the beginning of the 17th century, Wright succeeded Thomas Hood as a mathematics lecturer under the patronage of the wealthy merchants Sir Thomas Smyth and Sir John Wolstenholme; the lectures were held in Smyth’s house in Philpot Lane. By 1612 or 1614 the East India Company had taken on sponsorship of these lectures for an annual fee of £50 (about £6,500 as of 2007). Wright was also mathematics tutor to the son of James I, the heir apparent Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, from 1608 or 1609 until the latter’s death at the age of 18 on 6 November 1612. Wright was described as “a very poor man” in the Prince’s will and left the sum of £30 8s (about £4,300 in 2007). To the Prince, who was greatly interested in the science of navigation, Wright dedicated the second edition of Certaine Errors (1610) and the world map published therein. He also drew various maps for him, including a “sea chart of the N.-W. Passage; a paradoxall sea-chart of the World from 30° Latitude northwards; [and] a plat of the drowned groundes about Elye, Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, &c”.
Wright was a skilled designer of mathematical instruments. According to the 1615 Caius annals, “[h]e was excellent both in contrivance and execution, nor was he inferior to the most ingenious mechanic in the making of instruments, either of brass or any other matter”. For Prince Henry, he made models of an astrolabe and a pantograph, and created or arranged to be created out of wood a form of armillary sphere which replicated the motions of the celestial sphere, the circular motions of the sun and moon, and the places and possibilities of them eclipsing each other. The sphere was designed for a motion of 17,100 years, if the machine should last that long. In 1613 Wright published The Description and Use of the Sphære, which described the use of this device. The sphere was lost during the English Civil War, but found in 1646 in the Tower of London by the mathematician and surveyor Sir Jonas Moore, who was later appointed Surveyor General of the Ordnance Office and became a patron and the principal driving force behind the establishment of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. Moore asked the King to let him have it, restored the instrument at his own expense and deposited it at his own house “in the Tower”.
The Caius annals also report that Wright “had formed many other useful designs, but was hindered by death from bringing them to perfection”. The 1610 edition of Certaine Errors contained descriptions of the “sea-ring”, which consisted of a universal ring dial mounted over a magnetic compass that enabled mariners to determine readily the magnetic variation of the compass, the sun’s altitude and the time of day in any place if the latitude was known; the “sea-quadrant”, for the taking of altitudes by a forward or backward observation; and a device for finding latitude when one was not on the meridian using the height of the pole star.
In 1614 Wright published a small book called A Short Treatise of Dialling: Shewing, the Making of All Sorts of Sun-dials, but he was mainly preoccupied with John Napier’s Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio (Description of the Wonderful Rule of Logarithms), which introduced the idea of logarithms. Wright at once saw the value of logarithms as an aid to navigation, and lost no time in preparing a translation which he submitted to Napier himself. The preface to Wright’s edition consists of a translation of the preface to the Descriptio, together with the addition of the following sentences written by Napier himself:
But now some of our countreymen in this Island well affected to these studies, and the more publique good, procured a most learned Mathematician to translate the same into our vulgar English tongue, who after he had finished it, sent the Coppy of it to me, to bee seene and considered on by myselfe. I having most willingly and gladly done the same, finde it to bee most exact and precisely conformable to my minde and the originall. Therefore it may please you who are inclined to these studies, to receive it from me and the Translator, with as much good will as we recommend it unto you.
While working on the translation, Wright died in late November 1615 and was buried on 2 December 1615 at St. Dionis Backchurch in the City of London. The Caius annals noted that although he “was rich in fame, and in the promises of the great, yet he died poor, to the scandal of an ungrateful age”. Wright’s translation of Napier, which incorporated tables that Wright had supplemented and further information by Henry Briggs, was completed by Wright’s son Samuel and arranged to be printed by Briggs. It appeared posthumously as A Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithmes in 1616, and in it Wright was lauded in verse as “[t]hat famous, learned, Errors true Corrector, / England’s great Pilot, Mariners Director”.
According to Parsons and Morris, the use of Wright’s publications by later mathematicians is the “greatest tribute to his life’s work”. Wright’s work was relied on by Dutch astronomer and mathematician Willebrord Snellius, noted for the law of refraction now known as Snell’s law, for his navigation treatise Tiphys Batavus (Batavian Tiphys, 1624); and by Adriaan Metius, the geometer and astronomer from Holland, for Primum Mobile (1631). Following Wright’s proposals, Richard Norwood measured a degree on a great circle of the earth at 367,196 feet (111,921 m), publishing the information in 1637. Wright was praised by Charles Saltonstall in The Navigator (1642) and by John Collins in Navigation by the Mariners Plain Scale New Plain’d (1659), Collins stating that Mercator’s chart ought “more properly to be called Wright’s chart”. The Caius annals contained the following epitaph: “Of him it may truly be said, that he studied more to serve the public than himself”.