Tex Sample

Tex Sample (born December 28, 1934) is a specialist in church and society, a storyteller, author, and the Robert B. and Kathleen Rogers Professor Emeritus of Church and Society at the St. Paul School of Theology, a United Methodist seminary in Kansas City, Missouri, where he taught from 1967–1999. He has published four books about the working class.

Born in Brookhaven

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, Mississippi, Sample received a BA from Millsaps College, an MDiv and PhD from Boston University, and a DD from Coe College Victoria Beckham UK 2016. A former cab driver, laborer, and oil field roustabout, he is currently a freelance speaker and consultant based in greater Kansas City, MO

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. A much sought-after lecturer, storyteller, workshop leader and consultant, Tex is a contributor to the DVD programs in the Living the Questions series. His most recent books are Earthy Mysticism (2008), The Future of John Wesley’s Theology (2012) 2016 Free People, and Human Nature, Interest, and Power: a Critique of Rheinhold Niebuhr’s Social Thought (2013).
His father named him after Texanna Gillham, an African-American woman who was born in slavery and helped raise his father near Center, Texas.

Bobby Thomson (footballer, born 1943)

* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
Robert Anthony “Bobby” Thomson (5 December 1943 – 19 August 2009) was an English professional footballer. He made 478 appearances in the Football League and won eight caps for England.
Something of a legend at his first club – Wolverhampton Wanderers, he is considered to be one of the finest full-backs ever to have played for the team. Departing Wolves in 1969, he then moved on to Birmingham City and then Luton Town. He was promoted out of the Second Division with all three clubs. His later career involved moving between numerous clubs, both at home and abroad. He spent time as player-coach at Connecticut Bicentennials and player-manager of Stafford Rangers.

Thomson was an exceptionally fast full-back and was also extremely adept at back-pedalling.
Thomson was born in Smethwick, which was then in Staffordshire. He joined local side Wolverhampton Wanderers in 1959 upon leaving Lyndon High School in Solihull. He signed professional forms in July 1961, before making his senior debut on 27 January 1962 in an FA Cup tie against Black Country rivals West Bromwich Albion. Between his debut in 1962 to 1967 he missed just 11 first team games.
Unfortunately for Thomson, he was too late for the glory years, and instead came through under the tail-end of manager Stan Cullis’ sixteen-year reign. Their best finish during Thomson’s time was fifth in the First Division in 1962–63. The club fell to the Second Division in 1964–65. They won promotion at the second time of asking – in 1966–67, as runners-up. In Summer 1967 he was part of the Wolves side that played in the United States, guesting as the Los Angeles Wolves, under which guise they won the United Soccer Association league championship.
In March 1969, Thomson moved on to Birmingham City for £40,000, teaming up with his former boss Stan Cullis, though Cullis retired early the next year. He played 44 games of the 1969–70 campaign, in a settled back four made up of Thomson, Dave Robinson, Garry Pendrey, and Ray Martin. However he fell out of favour under new boss Freddie Goodwin, and featured just 15 times in 1970–71. In 1971–72, Birmingham gained promotion to the top tier, as runners-up behind Norwich City. He did not play any first team games however, and instead spent part of 1971 on loan at nearby Third Division club Walsall.
In 1972, he moved on to Luton Town, another Second Division side with ambitions of top-flight football. Thomson’s teams had a knack of finishing second in the second tier, as the “Hatters” achieved this in 1973–74, as they watched Middlesbrough sprint away with the title. Luton were unfortunate to go back down in 1974–75, finishing a mere point from the safety of Tottenham Hotspur in 19th.
In 1976, his career drawing to a close and his best days behind him, Thomson went back to the States, spending a short period with Hartford Bicentennials. He returned to the Football League, and the West Midlands

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, with Third Division Port Vale in October 1976 Cheongsam Dress. He made an ‘impressive’ debut in a 3–2 defeat to Wrexham at Vale Park on 16 October 1976 and earned himself both a regular first team spot and the captaincy. He played 24 games for Roy Sproson’s team in 1976–77, before he returned to the re-branded Connecticut Bicentennials as player-coach in March 1977.
He stayed with the Connecticut Bicentennials for two years, before returning to England with non-league Worcester City. He later became player-manager of Stafford Rangers. Another spell in the USA with Memphis Rogues in the NASL followed, before he joined Brewood cheap Puma Soccer Cleats, Solihull Borough and then Tipton Town.
Thomson won eight full caps with the senior team between 1963 and 1964. He was selected by Alf Ramsey and made his full international debut on 20 November 1963 in an 8–3 Home International victory over Northern Ireland. His final international appearance came in December 1964.
He also played fifteen games for the England under-23 team, which was a record.
He was married to Jan and had three children. After retiring from playing, he ran a sports shop in Sedgley in the West Midlands. He was known to take part in Wolves All Stars charity games from his retirement up until his last years, as well as help coach youngsters in Oldbury.
He died of prostate cancer at Russells Hall Hospital in Dudley at the age of 65

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. He had apparently recovered from a first occurrence of the illness, only to succumb after suffering a relapse.

Robert Cecil Beavan

Captain Robert Cecil Beavan (1841 – 3 February 1870) 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, corresponding member of the Zoological Society of London, served in India with the Bengal Staff Corps for 10 years 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online. During his short life he collected specimens of birds and eggs at various locations. He contributed notes to the Ibis journal as wells as the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. He also collaborated with Allan Octavian Hume. His collection of eggs and birds went into the Natural History Museum through the Tweeddale and Godman-Salvin collections Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016.
In 1864 Beavan worked at Barrackpore and the winter of that year was spent in the Maunbhoom District, an area studied earlier by Samuel Tickell and Edward Blyth. His notes on this period were published in The Ibis (1865) entitled “Notes on various Indian Birds”. While still in service he collected in the Andaman Islands and with additional information from Colonel Robert Christopher Tytler, wrote “The Avifauna of the Andaman Islands” in the Ibis in 1867. Beavan was sent home once to Britain due to bad health, and on his second such trip, he died at sea.
The species Pyrrhula erythaca, first collected by him, is sometimes called Beavan’s Bullfinch (Also called Gray-headed Bullfinch).
His brother, Reginald, a Lieutenant in the 22nd Punjab Native Infantry was a keen sports hunter and contributed numerous bird specimens.

Beavan’s chief publications are a series of notes in the Ibis between 1865 and 1868. These included many notes of Colonel R C Tytler.
Reginald appears to have communicated some of Robert’s papers to the Proceedings of the Zoological society after his death 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online. The Handbook of the freshwater fishes of India, was published posthumously in 1877 and is attributed to “Capt. R. Beavan, Bengal Staff Corps CMZS”.

Congregation Beth Israel (Jackson, Mississippi)

Congregation Beth Israel (Hebrew: בית ישראל‎) is a Reform Jewish congregation located at 5315 Old Canton Road in Jackson, Mississippi, United States. Organized in 1860 by Jews of German background, it has always been, and remains, the only synagogue in Jackson. Beth Israel built the first synagogue in Mississippi in 1867, and, after it burned down, its 1874 replacement was at one time the oldest religious building in Jackson.
Originally Orthodox, the congregation joined the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in 1874. After going through a series of rabbis, and periods without one, the congregation hired Meyer Lovitt as rabbi in 1929; he would remain until 1954. The congregation moved to a new building in 1941.
Dr

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. Perry Nussbaum, Beth Israel’s rabbi from 1954 to 1973, was active in the Civil Rights Movement. In 1967 the congregation moved to a new synagogue building, (its current one), and both the new building and Nussbaum’s house were bombed by the Ku Klux Klan that year.
As of 2010[update], the congregation was led by Valerie Cohen, Beth Israel’s first female rabbi. With a growing membership of 200 families, Beth Israel was the largest Jewish congregation in the state.

The congregation was originally established in 1860 by Jews of German background

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. Its primary purpose was to create a Jewish cemetery, which it immediately did, on State Street. In November 1862 the congregation hired a Mr. Oberndorfer as cantor; its next goal was provide a Jewish education for the congregation’s children. At the time Jackson had 15 Jewish families.
A number of accounts state that the congregation’s first synagogue was built at South State and South streets in 1861 and burned by the Union Army in 1863, but the veracity of this claim is disputed. In 1867 the congregation constructed a wood frame building at the corner of South State and South streets. The building, which was used both as a schoolhouse and for prayer services, was the first synagogue in Mississippi.
From the start the congregation was not unified. However, as there were only about 50 Jews in Jackson in 1868, the community was too small for two synagogues. Conflicts arose between the older German Jewish members and post-American Civil War Jewish immigrants from Poland, particularly over synagogue ritual. The synagogue followed the Orthodox nusach Ashkenaz, but some members wanted to adopt Isaac Mayer Wise’s reformist Minhag America Prayer-Book.
Tensions eased when Beth Israel hired its first Rabbi, the Reverend L. Winter, in 1870. He moved the congregation towards Reform Judaism, replacing Saturday services with Friday night ones, giving sermons in English, and adding confirmation ceremonies. However, Winter left soon afterward. Beth Israel’s building burned down in 1874, and was replaced by a stone and brick building at the same location. In 1875 Beth Israel formalized its move to Reform by joining the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (now Union for Reform Judaism).
Following its founding the congregation grew very slowly; by 1908 there were still only 37 members, and 16 children in the religious school. By 1918, membership had fallen to 24, and children in the religious school to 10. That year the synagogue’s total income was $800 (today $12,600).
To accommodate members who had moved away from Jackson’s downtown, in 1940 the congregation commenced construction of a new building on Woodrow Wilson Drive, while holding services at Galloway Memorial Methodist Church. The congregation moved into the new building in 1941, and dedicated it in January 1942. The sanctuary had solid walnut pews that sat 300. At the time of the move, Beth Israel’s old building at South State and South was the oldest building used for religious purposes in Jackson.
In its first few decades Beth Israel went through a number of rabbis, whose tenures were all short-lived, and endured many periods without any rabbi at all. One rabbi, Louis Schreiber, was hired in 1915, and fired the next year, for “grossly insulting and hurting the feelings of Beth Israel members”. In 1929 the congregation hired Meyer Lovitt as rabbi, and with him Beth Israel achieved a measure of stability. By 1939, the synagogue had 72 members, out of a total Jewish population in Jackson of around 250.
Lovitt was non-confrontational, and avoided getting involved in issues relating to the Civil Rights Movement. He minimized the differences between Christianity and Judaism, and viewed assimilation positively. He preferred that the congregation celebrate the Jewish holidays in ways that attracted no attention, and had no objection to members putting up Christmas trees, which he referred to as “Hanukkah bushes.” Lovitt would remain with Beth Israel until his retirement in 1954.
In 1954 Lovitt was succeeded by Dr. Perry Nussbaum. Born in Toronto in 1908 and raised there, Nussbaum had attended a small Orthodox synagogue as a boy, and, after high school, worked as secretary for the Holy Blossom Temple’s rabbi Barnett R. Brickner. With encouragement from Brickner, in 1926 he applied and was accepted into a combined eight-year rabbinic ordination and degree program at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati and University of Cincinnati. He graduated in 1933, Hebrew Union College’s first Canadian graduate. He was the last member of his class to receive an offer of a position, so he had to accept as his first rabbinic posting a role at a Reform synagogue in Melbourne. This did not work out, as he was too inexperienced. Nussbaum subsequently served at a synagogue in Amarillo, Texas, and in 1937 accepted a position as a prison chaplain in Pueblo, Colorado, where he also worked as a part-time librarian at the local university, and taught public speaking. In 1941 he became rabbi of Temple Emanu-El in Wichita, Kansas, and in 1943 he joined the Chaplain Corps of the United States Army. He served in the Philippines, and eventually became a colonel in the United States Army Reserve.
After the war, he was assistant rabbi at a synagogue in Trenton, New Jersey (a position several other rabbis had rejected). Finding that the rabbi there wanted a secretary, not an assistant, Nussbaum resigned after less than a year, and moved to Temple Emanu-el of Long Beach, New York. He found the position there extremely political, and after three years became rabbi of Temple Anshe Amunim in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. After Lovitt retired from Beth Israel, the chair of the Central Conference of American Rabbis (and former classmate and friend), Rabbi Nathan Perilman, recommended the post to Nussbaum. Perilman stated the congregation was wonderful, and would respect and appreciate him. He also lauded the city of Jackson. Looking for stability, and some “rest and relaxation”, Nussbaum interviewed for the role; the search committee’s first question to him was “Doctor, what’s your position on school desegregation?” He replied that he was a liberal, but was careful not to get his congregants into trouble. Though the committee was concerned about his liberalism, they offered him the role, which he accepted, resigning from Temple Anshe Anusim.
Nussbaum had a forceful personality, and was outspoken and not particularly tactful; some congregants remembered him decades after he retired as “headstrong” and “abrasive”. He was a good educator, speaker, and pastor, and had a particular knack for composing original prayers. Nussbaum found Beth Israel’s membership highly assimilated, and, in his view, some congregants were “anti-Hebrew, anti-Israel, anti-everything!” He criticized members who put up Christmas trees (a large proportion did), and slowly re-introduced Jewish rituals such as bar mitzvahs to the congregation’s practice. He also developed an annual educational program for adults, and added Hebrew studies.
He supported Zionism and Israel, causes which his congregants typically publicly avoided. Upon arriving at Beth Israel he discovered that some of his richest members were supporters of the anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism, and he immediately prohibited them from meeting in the synagogue’s premises, which, according to Nussbaum, “left its scars”. He openly declared that Judaism was a religion distinct from Christianity, rather than just an Old Testament version of it. In 1955 he organized the Mississippi Assembly of Jewish Congregations, which had representatives from all twenty-five of Mississippi’s synagogues, and was elected its president. He was always keen on ecumenical work, but discovered that rabbis were excluded from the Jackson Ministerial Association, which was Protestant-only. He instead helped found the Jackson Interfaith Fellowship.
Following the bombing of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple in 1958, Nussbaum wrote an article in Beth Israel’s bulletin titled “It Can Happen Here”, in which he expressed the view that such a bombing was quite possible in Jackson. A copy of the article was reprinted in Jackson’s secular press, and raised considerable opposition amongst Jackson’s leadership. This in turn led to Nussbaum’s first battle with his congregation; at the next board meeting it was proposed that Nussbaum be required to clear all public statements with the board before making them. The rabbi’s supporters were able to defeat the resolution, but the attempt shook Nussbaum, though he did not end his activism. In 1961 Nussbaum provided considerable support to the early Freedom riders imprisoned in Mississippi jails, and in 1966 Nussbaum began sponsoring annual “Clergy Institutes” at Beth Israel, to which he invited local black ministers.
As tensions in the Southern United States heightened over the Civil rights movement, the Jews of Jackson came under threat, being targeted by both the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and the Americans for the Preservation of the White Race (APWR). The latter set up a booth at Jackson’s state fair selling antisemitic literature, and Samuel Bowers, the KKK’s Imperial Wizard in Mississippi, ordered attacks on both the synagogue and Nussbaum. The position of Beth Israel’s membership in Jackson was not secure; according to Murray Polner, writing in 1977, “Judaism may rank higher in the moral order of the Bible Belt fundamentalists than, say, Black Christianity or Roman Catholicism, but it remains nonetheless a less–than–equal sect, and extraneous and foreign religion in an area of xenophobes.” Jews were unofficially excluded from membership in the Jackson Country Club, and the congregants were used to “customary slights and indignities” from Jackson’s dominant white evangelical Protestant community.
In 1967, the congregation moved to its current location, a building on Old Canton Road described by Jack Nelson as “an octagonal structure dominated by a massive roof”. At the dedication in March of that year, both black and white ministers participated. On September 18, 1967 the new building was wrecked by a dynamite bomb placed by Klan members in a recessed doorway. According to Nelson, the explosion had “ripped through administrative offices and a conference room, torn a hole in the ceiling, blown out windows, ruptured a water pipe and buckled a wall.”
Three days later the Greater Jackson Clergy Alliance “expressed their sorrow and support for the Jewish community” by organizing a “Walk of Penance”. The Alliance, which had been formed two months earlier, comprised 60 clergy from 10 denominations, “the first racially integrated association of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in Mississippi.” Nussbaum had help found it, merging into it the Jackson Interfaith Fellowship. The Reverend Thomas Tiller, the Alliance president, stated that “by default, we may have contributed to a climate of opinion which gives rise to terrorism. What concerns us, and others like us, is that we may not have been zealous enough in protecting our God-given freedoms.” Despite this show of solidarity, and a reward offered of several thousand dollars, the perpetrators were not discovered.
In November of that year the same group planted a bomb that blew out the front of Nussbaum’s house, while he and his wife were sleeping there. Nussbaum blamed the bombings on local antisemitism and bigotry, but most of his congregation blamed it on Nussbaum’s anti-segregationist activism. Though the congregation officially supported him, a number of members privately urged him to leave Beth Israel and find another pulpit. The synagogue’s board of trustees voted to prohibit non-Jewish groups from using the synagogue’s premises unless they had prior approval from the board; the intent was to put an end to the interracial meetings that Nussbaum held there.
In the wake of the bombings, Nussbaum wanted to leave Jackson, but as a 60-year-old rabbi was unable to find another posting. He stayed at Beth Israel until his retirement in 1973, when he and his wife moved to San Diego.
After Nussbaum’s retirement, Beth Israel hired Richard Birnholz as rabbi. Birnholz was ordained at Hebrew Union College in 1971, and had served from 1971 to 1973 as assistant rabbi of Temple Israel in Memphis, Tennessee Free People Sale. While serving as rabbi, he was also a visiting professor in Millsaps College’s religion department. In 1977, he won the Samuel Kaminker Memorial Award for his informal education curriculum, and in 1983 he was alumni-in-residence at Hebrew Union College in New York. He served Beth Israel until 1986, then moved to Congregation Schaarai Zedek in Tampa, Florida.
Birnholz was followed by Eric Gurvis, Steven Engel, and Jim Egolf, all of whom, like Nussbaum before them, also served as the rabbis of Temple Beth El in Lexington, Mississippi, leading services there once a month on Sunday. At the end of the 20th century, Beth Israel was the largest of the fourteen synagogues in Mississippi, with 213 members.
In 2003, Beth Israel hired Valerie Cohen, Beth Israel’s first female rabbi. Cohen had originally earned a B.A. in public relations, then studied at Hebrew Union College’s Israel, Cincinnati and New York City campuses. She graduated in 1999 and was ordained at Manhattan’s Temple Emanuel. After serving for three years as assistant rabbi at Temple Israel in Memphis, Tennessee, Cohen joined Beth Israel. She continued the tradition of her predecessors of also serving as the rabbi of Lexington’s Temple Beth El.
In 2005 Cohen started classes for adults who wished to celebrate their Bar and Bat Mitzvah, but had not had the opportunity when 12 or 13. That same year, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Beth Israel welcomed between 75 and 100 evacuees from New Orleans. In 2006 Beth Israel had a membership of approximately 200 families which, in contrast with Mississippi’s other Jewish congregations, was slowly growing. Beth Israel’s services were attended by about 50 people in 2008. As of 2010[update], it remained the first, and only, synagogue in Jackson 2016 Billige Nike fodboldtrøjer, and was the largest Jewish congregation in the state. Cohen was the rabbi.
In February 2014, Rabbi Cohen accepted an offer to become rabbi of Temple Emanuel Sinai in Worcester, Massachusetts who ratified her contract during a special congregational meeting on March 9, 2014. The vote was near-unanimous in favor of hiring Rabbi Cohen. Ted Riter now serves as the interim rabbi until a more permanent rabbi can arrive in summer 2015.

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In molecular biology, TBE and TAE buffers are often used in procedures involving nucleic acids, the most common being electrophoresis. Tris-acid solutions are effective buffers for slightly basic conditions, which keep DNA deprotonated and soluble in water

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. EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations, particularly of magnesium (Mg2+). As these ions are necessary co-factors for many enzymes, including contaminant nucleases, the role of the EDTA is to protect the nucleic acids against enzymatic degradation Christian Louboutin Shop Online 2016. But since Mg2+ is also a co-factor for many useful DNA-modifying enzymes such as restriction enzymes and DNA polymerases, its concentration in TBE or TAE buffers is generally kept low (typically at around 1 mM).
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Excel Corporation

Excel Corporation is a meat packing plant located in Dodge City, Kansas, owned by Cargill Meat Solutions The Kooples Sale. The plant was originally opened in 1980 operating as a kill facility Replica Bogner sale. In 1983 the plant expanded and opened a fabrication floor. In 2005 a state of the art hamburger grind facility was added. The plant employs close to 2700 employees,the largest employer in Dodge City. About 5,800-6,000 cattle are slaughtered daily and about 1.5 million head are processed per year. The main areas of production include Slaughter, Fabrication and Rendering. Excel is one of the largest meat packing plants in the United States. Approximately 550,000 pounds of ground beef are processed daily. A typical day consists of three shifts

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Bataille d’Évora

Défense d’Évora le 29 juillet 1808, d’après un dessin publié dans la História Popular da Guerra Peninsular de J. Teixeira Botelho.
Guerre d’Espagne (Empire)
Batailles
Dos de Mayo · Tolède · Bruc · Valdepeñas · Pont d’Alcolea · Port de Cadix · Olhão · Cabezón · Gérone (1er) · Saragosse (1er) · Valence (1er) · Medina del Rio Seco · Bailén · Évora · Roliça · Vimeiro
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La bataille d’Évora se déroule le 29 juillet 1808 à Évora au Portugal, dans le cadre de la guerre péninsulaire portugaise et de la guerre d’indépendance espagnole, et oppose la division française du général Louis Henri Loison à une armée hispano-portugaise dirigée par le général Francisco de Paula Leite de Sousa. Les troupes impériales se heurtent au petit corps de Leite près d’Évora et le disperse aisément, avant de prendre d’assaut la ville faiblement gardée ; les défenseurs portugais sont massacrés et la cité est saccagée par les Français. Pour son comportement très brutal à Évora, le général Loison devient connu au Portugal sous le nom de Maneta (Une-Main).
En novembre 1807, une armée française commandée par le général Jean-Andoche Junot envahit le Portugal avec l’appui des Espagnols. L’occupation suit son cours jusqu’au soulèvement du Dos de Mayo contre les Français à Madrid, qui entraîne bientôt à son tour le Portugal dans la révolte. Abandonnant le nord et le sud du pays, les troupes de Junot concentrent leurs forces autour de Lisbonne. Au mois de juillet 1808, Junot détache le général Loison secourir la garnison d’Elvas assiégée par les Portugais. Après avoir défait le contingent hispano-portugais à Évora, Loison atteint Elvas, mais il est rappelé en urgence par Junot pour faire face au corps expéditionnaire britannique du général Wellesley débarqué près de Lisbonne.

En juillet 1807, l’empereur Napoléon Ier signe avec le tsar Alexandre le traité de Tilsit qui met fin à la Quatrième Coalition. Alors que le royaume de Prusse est amputé de la majeure partie de son territoire, l’Empire russe devient l’allié de la France. Après son triomphe, l’Empereur se penche sur le cas du Portugal où le roi Jean VI refuse d’appliquer le Blocus continental à l’encontre du commerce britannique.
Le 19 juillet, l’ambassadeur français adresse un ultimatum au gouvernement portugais. Le 2 août, le 1er corps d’observation de la Gironde est mis sur pied et reçoit comme commandant le général Jean-Andoche Junot. Au début, le prince régent rejette plusieurs des clauses de l’ultimatum de Napoléon, mais la menace de l’armée de Junot se faisant plus pressante, Jean VI accède à presque toutes les demandes de l’Empereur. Junot, à ce moment, fait route à travers l’Espagne avec 25 000 hommes. Napoléon l’informe que les Portugais ont finalement déclaré la guerre au Royaume-Uni, mais il est trop tard. En dépit de nombreuses difficultés, Junot fait son entrée à Lisbonne le 30 novembre sans avoir rencontré de résistance.
Embarqué sur une escadre portugaise de 16 navires, et escorté par des forces de la Royal Navy, le prince régent et son entourage partent en direction du Brésil juste avant l’arrivée des Français. Bien que les soldats de Junot n’aient rencontré aucune résistance sérieuse, nombre d’entre eux sont morts en chemin tandis que d’autres ont été lynchés par des paysans portugais en colère. Une première émeute éclate à Lisbonne le 13 décembre mais est facilement réprimé par les occupants. À la suite de cet événement, Junot dissous l’armée portugaise et impose de lourdes taxes, ce qui provoque le mécontentement de la population.
Au printemps de 1808, la position de Junot au Portugal reste relativement sûre. Son armée a en effet été renforcée par 4 000 soldats qui ont largement remplacé les hommes morts pendant les marches forcées lors de l’invasion. Parmi les trois divisions espagnoles alliées aux Français qui ont soutenu l’avance de Junot, les troupes du général Solano sont retournés en Andalousie. Le général Caraffa est quant à lui resté dans la région de Lisbonne avec 7 000 hommes, tandis que le général Belesta occupe Porto avec plus de 6 000 Espagnols. La population portugaise reste silencieuse vis-à-vis de cette occupation du fait de la dissolution de l’armée nationale, de la fuite des classes dirigeantes au Brésil et de la soumission des autorités civiles aux Français.
À cause du blocus britannique maillots de foot, les ports du Portugal ne peuvent plus écouler leurs marchandises en Angleterre ou au Brésil. 10 000 personnes sont réquisitionnées par les Français pour travailler dans les arsenaux et les chantiers navals, mais les rues de Lisbonne se remplissent bientôt d’un grand nombre de chômeurs demandant l’aumône. Une dépêche de Napoléon arrivée au mois de mai ordonne à Junot d’envoyer un contingent de 4 000 hommes sur Ciudad Rodrigo pour soutenir le maréchal Bessières dans le nord de l’Espagne, et 8 000 soldats supplémentaires pour établir des lignes de communications avec le général Dupont en Andalousie. Ce sont les dernières instructions expédiées au Portugal depuis Paris.
Le soulèvement du Dos de Mayo à Madrid contre les Français bouleverse complètement la situation. Lorsque les nouvelles de la révolte atteignent Porto le 6 juin, Belesta s’empare du général Quesnel, de son état-major et de son escorte et les traitent comme prisonniers de guerre. Le commandant espagnol rassemble ensuite les dirigeants de la ville et les exhortent à former un gouvernement anti-français. Obéissant fidèlement aux ordres de la junte de Galice, Belesta met ses troupes en marche afin de rejoindre les armées espagnoles. Une semaine après le départ des soldats, les dirigeants de Porto ne font rien pour soutenir le soulèvement. Certains font même parvenir à Junot des lettres où ils professent leur loyauté, et le gouverneur militaire retire le drapeau national de la citadelle. Cette situation ne se répète pas partout, cependant : la province de Trás-os-Montes se soulève entre les 9 et 12 juin ; à Bragance, le général Sepúlveda est désigné comme commandant en chef tandis que le colonel Francisco Silveira est nommé gouverneur de Vila Real.
Informé de la défection de Belesta le 9 juin, Junot projette de désarmer la division Caraffa. Convoqué au quartier-général français, le commandant espagnol est arrêté, alors que ses troupes sont passées en revue ou sont chargées d’inspecter certaines positions. Elles sont cependant soudainement encerclées par les troupes françaises et faites prisonnières. Seul le régiment de cavalerie légère n°2 Reina parvient à s’échapper vers Porto du fait de la désobéissance du colonel aux ordres reçus. Quelques éléments des régiments d’infanterie de Murcie et de Valence réussissent aussi à fuir en direction de Badajoz. Junot

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, par ce stratagème, a capturé 6 000 soldats de la division Caraffa qui sont détenus sur les pontons du port de Lisbonne. Les officiers français responsables des forts ont ordre de couler les navires si les prisonniers tentent de s’échapper. Les Espagnols ne seront finalement libérés qu’après la convention de Cintra.
Le 16 juin pas cher maillots de foot, la rébellion se propage au sud du pays avec le soulèvement de la population d’Olhão contre les Français. Le 18, les habitants de la ville de Faro suivent le mouvement. Le gouverneur français de l’Algarve, le général Antoine Maurin, ainsi que 70 de ses soldats sont capturés puis transportés à bord d’un navire de guerre britannique comme prisonniers. Le colonel Jean-Pierre Maransin rassemble alors deux bataillons d’infanterie en garnison dans l’Algarve et, avec ces 1 200 hommes, se retire sur Mértola sans être poursuivi par les insurgés.
L’occupation de Lisbonne, la seule grande ville et le seul grand arsenal du pays, représente un atout important pour Junot contre les Portugais. Parmi toutes les cités du pays, la capitale est en effet la seule capable d’équiper une armée. La position de Junot est toutefois compliquée par la présence de l’escadre russe de l’amiral Seniavine dans le port de Lisbonne. Ce dernier promet de se défendre en cas d’attaque de la flotte britannique, mais il refuse en revanche de débarquer ses marins pour aider les Français à terre. Seniavine fait remarquer, en outre, que son pays n’est pas en guerre avec le Portugal. Son attitude neutre n’empêche pas moins ses marins de consommer une grande partie des réserves de vivres de Junot, pourtant limitées adidas soccer jerseys 2016 outlet.
Se conformant aux ordres de Napoléon, Junot dépêche le général de brigade Jean-Jacques Avril avec 3 000 hommes en direction de Badajoz. Avril se met en marche mais se heurte vers la frontière, sur les rives de la Guadiana, à un corps de miliciens espagnols soutenu par de l’artillerie. Après avoir été informé que son collègue Dupont n’a pas dépassé Cordoue et que de nombreuses troupes espagnoles sont signalées autour de Badajoz, le général français rétrograde sur Estremoz, dans la région de l’Alentejo. Le 12 juin, le général de division Louis Henri Loison quitte les alentours d’Almeida et se dirige dans la province de Beira avec une brigade d’infanterie. Il chasse la garnison espagnole du fort Concepcion et atteint les environs de Ciudad Rodrigo. Il est alors informé que la ville est pourvue d’une forte garnison. Le maréchal Bessières est loin. Revenu à Almeida le 15, il y apprend que Porto est au bord de la rébellion. Loison rassemble 2 000 hommes et quelques canons et se met en marche vers Porto, mais le 21 juin, les Français tombent dans une embuscade tendue par des guérilleros. Loison, jugeant ses troupes trop inférieures en nombre, n’insiste pas et retraite jusqu’à Almeida.
Entre temps, des émeutes éclatent à Lisbonne lors de la célébration annuelle de la fête du Corpus Christi, le 16 juin. Junot, qui a autorisé le déroulement des festivités, déploie tout de même 15 000 soldats pour prévenir toute tentative de rébellion. Alors que la procession religieuse se déroule normalement dans les rues de la ville, un mouvement de panique surgit au sein de la foule qui bouscule les lignes de soldats. L’artillerie française est mise en batterie et se prépare à tirer sur la population, mais Junot, faisant à cette occasion preuve d’un grand sang-froid, ordonne à ses hommes de ne pas ouvrir le feu. Il réussit à dégager les rues, calme les habitants et demande à ce que la procession continue de suivre son cours. Si l’intervention personnelle de Junot a permis d’éviter un massacre, Lisbonne reste en proie à des troubles. Par dessus le tout, une flottille britannique transportant un corps expéditionnaire commandé par le général Spencer rôde au large des côtes. Spencer ne dispose que de 5 000 hommes, mais Junot ignore la faiblesse de son adversaire.
Le 18 juin, une révolte se déclenche à Porto, forçant les autorités à se déclarer en faveur de la rébellion. Une junte suprême est mis en place et l’évêque de Porto est désigné à sa tête. Les juntes secondaires à Bragance et Vila Real doivent en référer à la junta de Porto pour leurs décisions. Du côté militaire, les 2e, 12e, 21e et 24e d’infanterie, le 6e Caçadores et les 6e, 11e et 12e régiments de cavalerie sont rétablis. La fourniture en armes s’avère cependant incomplète pour les 5 000 soldats réguliers du général Freire de Andrade en raison des difficultés. Malgré cet état de fait, 12 000 à 15 000 miliciens se joignent encore à la cause portugaise.
À l’issue du conseil de guerre du 25 juin 1808, Junot et ses généraux décident d’abandonner les provinces du nord et du sud et de défendre le centre du Portugal, jugeant la retraite à travers l’Espagne trop risquée. Les Français doivent tenir les forteresses d’Almeida, Elvas et Peniche d’une part, et concentrer l’armée autour de Lisbonne d’autre part. Les ordres sont transmis aux différents commandants français : Loison à Almeida, Avril à Estremoz, Maransin à Mértola et le général François Étienne Kellermann à Elvas. Bien qu’un certain nombre de courriers aient été interceptés en chemin par les guérilleros portugais, tous les chefs de corps reçoivent leurs instructions. Selon un rapport, un seul des 20 courriers envoyés au général Loison est parvenu à destination.
Le 22 juin, le général Avril marche sur Vila Viçosa où une compagnie du 86e de ligne est assiégé par les habitants. Les troupes françaises mettent les Portugais en déroute, tuent de nombreuses personnes et pillent la ville. Kellermann laisse un bataillon du 2e régiment suisse et quatre compagnies du 86e de ligne en garnison à Elvas, pour un total de 1 400 hommes, et retourne à l’ouest de Lisbonne. En chemin, il fait sa jonction avec les soldats d’Avril à Estremoz et ceux de Maransin à Évora. Il place une brigade dirigée par le général Jean François Graindorge à Setúbal et atteint la capitale sans incident.
Pendant ce temps, Loison poste 1 200 hommes inaptes à faire campagne en garnison à Almeida ; avec le reste de ses troupes, il quitte la ville le 4 juillet et atteint Abrantes une semaine plus tard. Les soldats français sont harcelés tout au long du parcours : à Guarda, la résistance de la population détermine Loison à saccager les lieux et à y mettre le feu. Quelques 200 Impériaux ont déjà été victimes de leurs adversaires, dont des traînards mis à mort par les paysans. Les villages sur son chemin étant systématiquement réduits en cendres, Loison acquiert le surnom de Maneta (Une-Main) et est encore maudit par la population portugaise des années plus tard. À la fin du mois de juin, l’insurrection s’étend à Coimbra. Un contingent dirigé par un étudiant, Bernardo Zagalo, se présente sous les murs de Figueira da Foz et capture la petite garnison française. Peu de temps après, Freire déploie ses 5 000 soldats au sud du fleuve Mondego. Junot, quant à lui, ordonne au général Pierre Margaron de marcher à la rencontre des Portugais avec 3 000 hommes pour réprimer la rébellion, le 5 juillet. Le commandant en chef concentre dans le même temps 24 000 soldats autour de Lisbonne.
Le mois de juillet 1808 est l’occasion d’une accalmie pendant laquelle aucun des deux belligérants n’effectue le moindre mouvement. À la fin du mois, Junot demande à Loison de se frayer un chemin jusqu’à Elvas. Le général est placé à la tête d’une force comprenant les 4e et 5e régiments de dragons provisoires (1 248 hommes), deux bataillons de grenadiers (1 100 hommes), douze compagnies des 1er et 2e bataillons du 86e de ligne (1 667 hommes), le 1er bataillon de la légion hanovrienne (804 hommes), et les 3e bataillons du 12e léger (1 253 hommes), du 15e léger (1 305 hommes) et du 58e de ligne (1 428 hommes). Si les effectifs s’additionnent à 8 805 hommes, l’historien Charles Oman indique que 1 200 soldats doivent être soustraits du total pour tenir compte des compagnies de grenadiers détachées. La petite armée de Loison, ainsi forte de plus de 7 000 hommes soutenus par huit pièces d’artillerie, part de Lisbonne le 25 juillet,.
La junte de l’Alentejo a entre temps installé son quartier-général à Évora. Le général Francisco de Paula Leite de Sousa est nommé commandant en chef, mais, dépourvu de tout, il ne réussit à mettre sur pied qu’une force très restreinte. Le 29 juillet 1808, les troupes de Loison se présentent aux environs d’Évora en quête du contingent hispano-portugais. Leite n’a sous ses ordres qu’un demi-bataillon d’infanterie portugaise et 120 cavaliers. Depuis Badajoz, le colonel Moretti amène en renfort un demi-bataillon supplémentaire d’infanterie espagnole, ainsi que le régiment de hussards Maria Luisa n°5 et sept canons ; la colonne comprend également la garnison d’Évora très hétéroclite car composée de citadins et de paysans armés de vieux fusils et de piques. Les deux commandants alliés peuvent ainsi compter sur un total de 2 900 hommes.
Il aurait cependant été plus avisé, pour Leite et Moretti, de retrancher leurs soldats à l’abri des murs d’Évora. La ligne de bataille hispano-portugaise est rompue sous l’impact de la charge des soldats de Loison. Les hussards espagnols prennent la fuite en toute hâte ainsi que le général Leite. L’infanterie parvient néanmoins à se regrouper à l’intérieur de la ville, mais les Français font irruption de part et d’autre et massacrent les défenseurs ainsi qu’un grand nombre de non-combattants. Ses adversaires vaincus, le général Loison met la ville à sac. Le pays est en outre ravagé dans leur retraite par les Espagnols de manière encore plus brutale que les Français.
Le général Maximilien Sébastien Foy estime les pertes hispano-portugaises à 2 000 hommes hors de combat. Son collègue Paul Thiébault écrit de son côté que les défenseurs ont perdu 8 000 hommes, ce que l’historien Charles Oman juge peu probable. Les Français ne déplorent quant à eux que 90 tués et 200 blessés. Le 1er août, Loison reprend sa marche sur Elvas où il disperse un grand nombre de miliciens en train d’assiéger la ville. Il reçoit sur place un message de Junot lui ordonnant de le rejoindre au plus vite, en raison du débarquement d’un corps expéditionnaire britannique sous les ordres du général Arthur Wellesley le même jour. Loison fait immédiatement demi-tour et rallie Lisbonne, laissant en chemin la légion hanovrienne à Santarém.
 : document utilisé comme source pour la rédaction de cet article.

Manhattan Institute for Policy Research

The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (renamed in 1981 from the International Center for Economic Policy Studies) is a conservative American think tank established in New York City in 1978 by Antony Fisher and William J. Casey. The organization describes its mission as to “develop and disseminate new ideas that foster greater economic choice and individual responsibility”. Its message is communicated through books

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, articles, interviews, speeches, op-eds, and through the institute’s quarterly publication City Journal. According to the 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report and Policy Advice (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), the Institute is number 39 of the “Top 60 United States Think Tanks”.

The Institute’s divisions include the Center for the American University, Center for State and Local Leadership, Center for Legal Policy, Center for Medical Progress, Center for Energy Policy and the Environment, and Economics21.
The Center for the American University publishes a web magazine titled Minding the Campus. John Leo, former U.S. News & World Report columnist is the magazine’s editor.
The Manhattan Institute sponsors the Adam Smith Society The Kooples Online, a nationwide group of business school students.
Created in 2006, the Institute’s Veritas Fund for Higher Education is a donor advised fund that invests in universities and professors who are committed to bringing intellectual pluralism to their institutions. The fund invests in courses related to western civilization 2016 Bogner Ski Jackets, the American founding, and political economy.
The Manhattan Institute is perhaps best known for its influence on law enforcement methods. In particular, the Institute is widely credited with pioneering community policing methods and more specifically quality-of-life policing, also known as “broken windows theory” after the landmark 1982 Atlantic Monthly article “Broken Windows” by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. Broken Windows posits that dealing more effectively and comprehensively with low-level quality of life crime would reduce more high-profile violent crime. Broken Windows policing was put to its first major large-scale test in the mid-1990s after the election of Rudolph Giuliani as mayor of New York City. Giuliani was an outspoken advocate of community policing, frequently citing the influence “Broken Windows” had on his thinking as mayor.[citation needed] Giuliani appointed Kelling’s intellectual collaborator William J. Bratton as New York City Police Commissioner in 1994, saying, “I chose Bill Bratton because he agreed with the Broken Windows theory.”
A follow-up book by Kelling and Catherine Coles published by the Manhattan Institute in 1996 led to further interest in community policing methods, leading some municipalities to adopt quality-of-life and community policing as official policy. Giuliani-era New York City Police Commissioner Bratton took these methods to Los Angeles on being appointed Los Angeles Police Department chief of police. Newark, New Jersey Mayor Cory Booker has been lauded for his Broken Windows-based approach to crime since taking office in 2006.
Senior fellow Heather Mac Donald argues that crime prevention statistics from the 2008–2009 recession improved as a result of efficient policing, high incarceration rates, more police officers working, data-driven approaches such as CompStat which helps commanders target high-crime areas, and a policy of holding precinct commanders accountable for results. She contends the decline of American cities, beginning during the 1960s, was a result of crime “spiraling out of control”.
The Manhattan Institute was one of the key institutions that pressed for reform of the welfare system in the mid-1990s. Charles Murray’s Losing Ground: American Social Policy 1950–1980 (1984) argued that the welfare state had fostered a culture and cycle of dependency that was to the detriment of both welfare recipients and the United States as a whole.
Former senior fellow Jay P. Greene’s research on school choice was cited four times in the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, which affirmed the constitutionality of school vouchers.
The Institute’s Center for Medical Progress opposes allowing the federal government to negotiate prices in the Medicare Part D prescription drug program and believes that drug price negotiating has adverse effects in the Veterans Administration.
The Manhattan Institute is a proponent of the hydraulic fracturing (fracking) method of extracting natural gas and oil from underground deposits. In response to calls to ban fracking in parts of New York, the Manhattan Institute released a report in 2011 projecting that allowing fracking could “inject over $11 billion into the state economy”.
Foundations which have contributed over $1 million to the Manhattan Institute include the John M. Olin Foundation, Bradley Foundation, Sarah Scaife Foundation, Searle Freedom Trust, Smith Richardson Foundation, William E. Simon Foundation, the Claude Lambe Foundation, the Gilder Foundation, the Curry Foundation, and the Jaquelin Hume Foundation.[unreliable source?]
In 2013, hedge fund managers Cliff Asness, Henry Kravis and Thomas McWilliams all cut ties with the Manhattan Institute due to the group’s support of the abolition of defined benefit public pensions.
Coordinates: 40°45′15″N 73°58′39″W / 40.754275°N 73.97747°W / 40.754275

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Mouches volantes

Als Mouches volantes (französisch wörtlich fliegende Fliegen, deutsch fliegende Mücken, lateinisch: muscae volitantes, englisch floaters genannt, Syn.: ‚Glaskörperflocken‘) werden kleine schwarze Punkte, Flecken oder fadenartige Strukturen im Gesichtsfeld bezeichnet, die sich in charakteristisch huschender Weise gemeinsam mit der Blickrichtung verschieben, wobei sie um eine Grundposition herum langsam schwingende Bewegungen ausführen. In der Anfangsphase fallen sie besonders dann auf, wenn Hintergründe mit relativ wenigen dunklen Strukturen betrachtet werden, wie zum Beispiel hell gestrichene Wände, blauer Himmel oder weißes Papier. Eine Kategorisierung von Glaskörpertrübungen gibt es nicht. Je nach Typisierung und Schweregrad unterscheiden sie sich in der Art der Beeinträchtigung. Bei fortgeschrittener Destruktion des Glaskörpers sind die Trübungen vor jedem Hintergrund zu sehen, sogar mit geschlossenen Augen in einer hellen Umgebung.
Der Begriff Mouches volantes wird in der Augenheilkunde manchmal als Synonym für jede Art von Glaskörpertrübungen benutzt. Das ist irreführend. Der englische Oberbegriff Floater umfasst dagegen jeden Typ von Glaskörperdestruktionen wie Mouches volantes, Glaskörpertrübungen und den Weiss-Ring-Floater. Inzwischen ist er in der deutschsprachigen Fachliteratur häufig zu finden.
Mouches volantes stellen eine Unterabteilung des positiven Skotoms dar bogner daunenjacke 2016.

Mouches volantes beruhen auf kleinen Ungleichmäßigkeiten in der Glaskörper-Flüssigkeit und finden sich in nahezu jedem Auge. Sie entstehen durch die physiologische Kondensation von Kollagenfibrillen, die in der Grundsubstanz gelöst sind, zu mikroskopisch kleinen Fädchen und Klümpchen. Mouches volantes lassen sich durch Schatten- und Beugungseffekte an diesen Kondensaten erklären, die umso stärker sind, je mehr Licht ins Auge fällt, und umso deutlicher gesehen werden, je näher die Ungleichmäßigkeiten vor der Netzhaut liegen. Häufig treten sie in Verbindung mit höhergradiger Kurzsichtigkeit auf.
Mouches volantes nimmt fast jeder Mensch im Laufe seines Lebens bei bestimmten Lichtverhältnissen wahr. Die Diagnose bezeichnet eine harmlose, allerdings manchmal störende Veränderung. Der Visus, der zur Bewertung der Beeinträchtigung herangezogen wird, ist kein verlässlicher Parameter, um den Grad der Beeinträchtigungen zu messen, weil er im Sitzen, ohne Augen- und Kopfbewegungen, durchgeführt wird 2016 fußballschuh. Dadurch kommen die Glaskörpertrübungen, die sonst ständig im Auge hin- und herschwimmen, zum Stillstand. Der Krankheitswert wird in hohem Maße durch den Schweregrad, die Typisierung, die Lokalisation im zentralen Blickfeld, die Nähe zur Netzhaut, die Mobilität der Trübungen und vor allem die subjektive Beeinträchtigung bestimmt.
Eine Behandlungsmöglichkeit wäre die operative Entfernung des Glaskörpers (Vitrektomie), die jedoch wegen des unverhältnismäßig großen Aufwandes und der möglichen Komplikationen nur in schweren Fällen und bei Vorliegen ausgeprägter Beschwerden eine mögliche Therapie darstellt. In einer retrospektiven Studie mit 116 Patienten trat in 2,5 % der Fälle eine Netzhautablösung auf. Alternativ werden minimalinvasive Techniken erforscht, die nur einen sehr begrenzten Teil des Glaskörpers, entweder alle betroffenen Stellen oder die in der Sichtachse befindlichen Teile, entfernen (sog 2016 fußball trikots online. Core-Vitrectomy oder Floaterectomy). In begrenztem Umfang werden auch Laserbehandlungen durchgeführt billig Puma Fußballschuhe Steckdose 2016, deren Nutzen und Erfolg jedoch kontrovers diskutiert werden. Die Beeinflussung des Kollagen-Stoffwechsels im Glaskörper ist ein weiterer Ansatz die Lichtdurchlässigkeit wieder zu verbessern. Inzwischen ist eine Kombination von L-Lysin, Vitamin C, Procyanidine und Citrus-Flavonoiden klinisch untersucht worden.
Mouches volantes sind abzugrenzen von der Wahrnehmung anders gearteter Glaskörpertrübungen. Verdächtig sind besonders plötzliche, ausgeprägte Veränderungen wie eine Zunahme der Zahl, der Größe, ein Wechsel der Bewegungsart oder der Farbe der wahrgenommenen Flecken. Das massive Auftreten von groben, tiefschwarzen Flecken, die sich gleichmäßig nach oben oder unten bewegen, vergleichbar einem „Rußregen“, kann durch eine Blutung im Glaskörperraum verursacht werden. Eine plötzliche Zunahme der Mouches volantes, verbunden mit der Wahrnehmung von Blitzen, ist ein häufiges Symptom der physiologischen „hinteren Glaskörperabhebung“. Sie kann in seltenen Fällen über einen Netzhauteinriss zur Netzhautablösung führen. Die genannten Veränderungen sollten immer Anlass zu einer umgehenden augenärztlichen Untersuchung sein.
Ebenfalls davon abzugrenzen sind großflächige Verflüssigungen des Glaskörpers, die wie Wolken und Schlieren wahrgenommen werden. Bei einer Glaskörperabhebung entsteht der sogenannte Weiss-Ring-Floater, der je nach Art der Ablösung als einfacher, mehrfacher, zerrissener oder klumpiger Ring vom Betroffenen wahrgenommen werden kann. Je nach Stadium der voranschreitenden Ablösung kann er vorwiegend zentral oder peripher wahrgenommen werden. Ist die Verflüssigung des Glaskörpers weit fortgeschritten, wird er aufgrund der Kopf- und Augenbewegungen unaufhörlich und mit großer Geschwindigkeit durch das gesamte Gesichtsfeld gewirbelt. Diese Art von Trübungen führen zu diesiger verschmierter Sicht und zu störenden entoptischen Phänomenen. Die verschwommene Sicht, die entoptischen Phänomene und die Mobilität der Trübungen können von den Betroffenen – je nach Schweregrad – als sehr beeinträchtigend und irritierend empfunden werden.
Allgemein
Vitrektomie und Floaters
YAG-Laserbehandlung und Floaters

List of Armenian Olympic medalists

Due to historical and political reasons,[a] only a small portion of Armenian athletes and athletes of Armenian descent have competed for Armenia. Armenian kings Tiridates III and Varazdat were recorded as champions in the Ancient Olympic Games Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016. The first Armenians to participate in modern Olympics were Mkrtich Mkryan and Vahram Papazyan from the Ottoman Empire. Both competed in athletics at the 1912 Stockholm Games. The first Armenian to win a medal was Hal Haig Prieste, a son of Armenian immigrants, who won a bronze medal in diving at the 1920 Antwerp Games for the United States. Soviet Armenian gymnast Hrant Shahinyan became the first Armenian gold medalist of the modern Olympics in 1952.
From 1952 to 1988, most Armenian athletes represented the Soviet Union. Although Armenia became an independent state in 1991, during the 1992 Barcelona Games Armenia and other former Soviet states (except the Baltic states) were part of the Unified Team. The National Olympic Committee of Armenia was founded in 1990 and became an International Olympic Committee member in 1993. Since the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, the Republic of Armenia participates separately, but still some Armenian athletes compete under foreign flags, including athletes who migrated because of the economic crisis in the country in 1990s.

One of the most prominent Armenian kings, Tiridates III, who is best known for adopting Christianity as Armenia’s state religion in 301, became a champion in wrestling in the 265th Olympics in 281 at age 22-23 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online.
King of Armenia Varazdat (Varasdates) from the Arsacid dynasty, who reigned between 374 and 378, is the last known champion of the Ancient Olympic Games. He became a champion in fisticuffs at the 291st Olympic Games in 385 A rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016.D. 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, seven years after leaving the Armenian throne.[b]