Il Valarin è una lingua immaginaria ideata dallo scrittore inglese J.R.R Karen Millen Outlet UK. Tolkien per il complesso di racconti legati alla Terra di Mezzo.
È la lingua dei Valar e dei Maiar. Capaci di comunicare attraverso il pensiero, questi in realtà non avevano bisogno di un linguaggio parlato, ma il Valarin viene da loro adottato come parte della loro assunzione di forme fisiche umanoidi.
Il Valarin era completamente estraneo alle orecchie degli Elfi, a volte a tal punto da generare disapprovazione, e pochissimi di loro impararono la lingua, adottando solamente alcune delle parole Valarin nel loro Quenya. I Valar e i Maiar invece impararono il Quenya, e lo usavano per conversare con gli Elfi, o tra di loro quando erano presenti gli Elfi. Il Valarin sembra usare parole molto lunghe; per esempio, la parola Valarin per Telperion, Ibrîniðilpathânezel, è lunga otto sillabe. I Vanyar adottarono un maggior numero di parole del Valarin nel loro dialetto Quendya rispetto ai Noldor e ai Teleri, poiché vivevano più vicino ai Valar.
Almeno una parola nella Lingua Nera, nazg, “anello”, sembra essere presa a prestito dal Valarin naškad (Melkor era un Vala e Sauron un Maia, quindi anche loro dovevano conoscere il Valarin)[senza fonte].
Il Valarin non è collegato ad alcuna delle altre lingue di Arda poiché fu creato fuori da Eä, e tranne per poche parole (quasi sempre nomi propri) nella visione di Tolkien non si sa quasi nulla del linguaggio.
Tolkien sembra essere stato indeciso negli anni sulla possibilità di dare un linguaggio proprio ai Valar; alcuni dei suoi scritti indicano che questi non abbiano una loro lingua, ma ciò fu cambiato successivamente. Il risultato sembra aver causato alcune contraddizioni e passaggi poco chiari; per esempio, se il nome di Manwë provenga dal Valarin o dalla radice Quenya per “benedetto”, come affermano alcuni scritti.
In alcune versioni più antiche del Silmarillion e nel Lhammas, il Valarin è suddiviso in Oromëano, Aulëano e Melkiano. In questa concezione, tutte le lingue elfiche provengono dall’Oromëano, mentre i Nani parlano l’Aulëano e la Lingua Nera è il Melkiano; tuttavia, questa visione fu più tardi scartata.
Bigram John Zayas (born July 11, 1978), professionally known as DVLP or Develop, is an American record producer, songwriter and disc jockey (DJ), from New York City. DVLP is also one half of the production team Doe Boys, alongside his cousin Matthew “Filthy” Delgiorno. Working primarily in the hip hop and pop genres, he has produced over 25 songs for American rapper Lil Wayne, including the songs “Fireman” (2005) and “Blunt Blowin” (2011). In 2013, he gained major recognition when he produced the Eminem single “Rap God”.
Zayas was born in New York City. He never had any formal musical training, although his family is involved in music. One of his uncles is Grammy Award-winning artist Marc Anthony. He first started DJing at the age of 11, using house and freestyle records. He went on to make mixtapes and perform at high school parties.
While traveling around the world as a founding member of the turntablist collective The Allies (which also included Craze, J-Smoke, Spictakular, Infamous, A-Trak and Klever), he went by the moniker Develop. His emphasis was on beat juggling. In 1998, he won the ITF Beat Juggling Championship, defeating Total Eclipse of The X-Ecutioners in the finals. In 1999, he won the ITF Team Championship, and he was runner-up at the New York DMC Regional in 1998. In 2000, The Allies released an EP, D-Day.
In 2000, DVLP decided to end his career as a competitive DJ, in order to focus on producing and songwriting. Shortly afterwards, he began collaborating with Filthy (his cousin, Matthew Delgiorno). The duo were known as the Doe Boys. After taking a few years off to hone his production skills, his first major production work was on the 2004 Grafh song “Damage is Done.” He went on to produce four tracks on Juelz Santana’s What the Game’s Been Missing! (2005), also assisting with recording and engineering.
DVLP has gone on to write and produce for Shells, The Diplomats (aka Dipset), Kelly Rowland, Fabolous, Cam’ron, DJ Clue?, Fat Joe, Jennifer Lopez, Pitbull, Nicki Minaj, Rick Ross, John Legend and others.
DVLP started working with Lil Wayne in 2005. The Doe Boys produced three tracks on Tha Carter II, including the album’s lead single, “Fireman,” which reached #10 on the Billboard Rap chart and #32 on the Billboard Hot 100. “Fireman” was Lil Wayne’s first single following his split from former producer Mannie Fresh. After Tha Carter II, DVLP continued working with Lil Wayne; he has produced over 25 songs for him through 2013.
In 2011, he dropped the vowels from his moniker and became DVLP. That year, for Tha Carter IV, he produced “Blunt Blowin,” which reached #33 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts. Lil Wayne recorded the track on his first day back in the studio after being released from prison. Other notable tracks DVLP has produced for Lil Wayne include “What’s Wrong With Them” featuring Nicki Minaj, from 2010’s I Am Not a Human Being, and “Beat The Shit” featuring Gunplay, from the 2013 album I Am Not a Human Being II.
DVLP produced Eminem’s “Rap God”
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, released October 15, 2013, as the third single off The Marshall Mathers LP 2. DVLP first created the track in 2011, without any particular artist in mind. His manager, Stephen Hacker of Hebrew Hustle, sent the track to Eminem in 2012 after Eminem’s management team reached out to Hacker for tracks for his upcoming album. DVLP has since said that he can’t imagine any other rapper on the track. The song, about Eminem’s history and the rappers who have inspired him, was praised as being in line with the quality of Eminem’s best offerings. It reached #1 on the Billboard Rap chart and #7 on the Hot 100 charts. At the inaugural YouTube Music Awards in 2013, Eminem shot a live video for “Rap God.” An official music video for the song, shot in Detroit, was released in November 2013.
DVLP has collaborated with producer RedOne on records by a variety of pop artists. They co-produced Paulina Rubio’s 2012 single “Me Gustas Tanto,” which reached #1 on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart and #2 on the Billboard Latin Pop Songs chart; and Pitbull’s 2012 single “Get It Started” featuring Shakira, which reached #28 on the Billboard Latin Pop Songs chart, #89 on the Billboard Hot 100, and was certified gold in Canada. In 2011, as a member of the DJ duo The WAV.s (with Bilal the Chef), DVLP worked on Enrique Iglesias’s single “I Like How It Feels” featuring Pitbull, which reached #1 on the Billboard Dance/Club Play Songs chart, #74 on the Billboard Hot 100, and was certified platinum in Canada and gold in Australia. DVLP and Bilal the Chef were featured in the song’s video, directed by Iglesias.
In 2010, DVLP formed the band Mad Ave Boys, now known as Dameht, producing their debut EP Electric Tape. He also played bass and synth on the release
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Chiridopsis punctata is a species of leaf beetles belonging to the family Chrysomelidae.
Chiridopsis punctata can reach a length of about 5–6 millimetres (0.20–0.24 in) and a width of about 4–5 millimetres (0.16–0.20 in), The body is almost circular, with wide explanate margins of the elytra and a rounded anterior margin of the pronotum. Disc is strongly convex. Elytra are black with faint green spots. They are surrounded by a yellowish line along the entire margins of the pronotal and elytral discs (in dried specimens such a line and the spots become reddish-brown). Head, ventrites, legs, and antennae are yellow. The most similar species is Chiridopsis rubromaculata, but it differs in colour of spots being red.
These beetles can be found in large number throughout the year, although their number in the winter months is slightly higher. The pupal stage takes place in June and last ten days. The main host plants are Argyreia species and, Ipomoea species (Convolvulaceae).
This species is present in southern Asia, in Northeastern India, Southern China Ted Baker Ireland, Indonesia (Sumatra
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, Java), Malaysia (Borneo), Thailand and Vietnam.
The Outstanding Filipino or TOFIL Award is the honor given by the Junior Chamber International (JCI) Senate Philippines to Filipino men and women, 41 years of age and over, whose exemplary achievements are worthy of emulation. The award was conceived in 1988 to institutionalize the public recognition of these outstanding individuals.
JCI Senate Philippines believes that there are a lot of men and women age 41 and over who deserve recognition for their contributions to society. It enlisted the support of Insular Life in an endeavor that would give due recognition to these people. Thus the TOFIL Award was born.
The JCI Senate Philippines is an organization of a select group of Junior Chamber International (JCI) members, who, in recognition of their outstanding achievements and contributions to the JCI movement, have been awarded lifetime membership as JCI Senators. They now number 3,000 in the Philippines. Among them are: a former chief justice, senators, representatives, cabinet secretaries, governors, city mayors, judges, and other government officials; presidents of financial
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, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and other business enterprises; distinguished doctors, lawyers and other professionals; successful entrepreneurs and community leaders.
Nomination for the award is open to every Filipino, natural born, naturalized citizen or bearing dual citizenship (Filipino and a foreign country), at least 41 years of age and of good moral character whose dedication to his/her profession or vocation has made significant contributions to the advancement of his/her calling, public welfare and national development. Honorees are chosen based on the strength of their character and integrity; and the impact of their achievements on their field of work, public welfare and national development.
The following is the list of TOFIL awardees from its conception in 1988 to the present:
Cheikha Rimitti (* 8. Mai 1923 in Tessala bei Sidi bel Abbès; † 15. Mai 2006 in Paris; eigentlich Bedief Saadia) war eine algerische Raï-Sängerin.
Ihr Künstlername (auch Remitti geschrieben) stammt vom französischen „Remettez“, zu Deutsch „Schenk nach!“. Cheikha Rimitti galt als die berühmteste der Sängerinnen der “Cheikhates”-Generation nach 1920 und war bis zu ihrem Tod aktiv. Ihre Musik illustrierte den inhaltlichen Wandel vom orchestralen Medahates-Raï hin zum individuelleren Cheikha-Stil, begleitet von der Gasba (einer Rosenholzflöte) sowie der Guellal (einer Rahmentrommel).
Rimitti wuchs auf in Relizane und verlor früh ihre Eltern. Sie schlug sich durch als Haushaltshilfe in französischen Familien und schloss sich dann einer Gruppe von Wandermusikern an. Mit dieser durchlebte sie die schweren Typhusseuchen dieser Zeit, sie selbst sagte später über diese Phase ihres Lebens „Man lud die Toten auf Karren … […] Ich weinte und sang zugleich, um dieses ganze Leid abzuschütteln, das mich kaputtgemacht hatte.“.
Cheikha Rimitti machte 1952 ihre erste Schallplattenaufnahme noch unter dem Namen Cheikha Remettez Reliziane für die französische Plattenfirma Pathé-Marconi, zwei Jahre später wurde sie dann berühmt unter ihrem heutigen Namen durch Skandalstücke mit offenen feministischen und freizügigen Texten.
Zur Zeit des Algerienkriegs hatte Cheikha Rimitti den Widerstand unterstützt bogner jacken, in der nachfolgenden prüden Gesellschaft war für den Raï jedoch kein Platz. Unter Boumedienne erhielt sie Auftrittsverbot und, befördert durch das Auftauchen neuer Raï-Stile, geriet Cheikha Rimitti mit ihrem sehr traditionellen Stil ein wenig in Vergessenheit.
1976 unternahm sie die Haddsch, die Pilgerfahrt nach Mekka, 1979 trat sie erstmals wieder im Ausland, in Frankreich, auf. In den 1980er Jahren, mit dem weltweiten Erfolg des Raï, entsann man sich ihrer wieder. Sie tourte international und spielte einige modern instrumentierte und arrangierte Alben ein. An diesen Alben beteiligten sich auch renommierte westliche Musiker wie der Red-Hot-Chili-Peppers-Bassist Flea.
Sie verstarb 2006 im Alter von 83 Jahren in Paris an einem Herzinfarkt. Bis kurz vor ihrem Tod trat sie noch regelmäßig auf.
Das Werk von Cheikha Rimitti umfasst 55 Schellackplatten, über 400 Kassetten und ca. 30 Alben auf LP und CD.
Solow (24 janvier 2010- ) est un cheval de course qui participe aux courses hippiques de plat. Né en Angleterre, propriété de ses éleveurs Alain et Gérard Wertheimer, il est entraîné par Freddy Head et monté par Maxime Guyon.
Né très tôt dans l’année, Solow fait ses débuts à 2 ans, en septembre, sur l’hippodrome de Longchamp, en s’octroyant la troisième place d’un maiden sous la selle d’Olivier Peslier. Le début de sa carrière est très ordinaire puisqu’il ne parvient pas à passer le poteau en tête avant sa cinquième sortie publique, en juin de ses 3 ans. Poulain très puissant, il ne semble pas en mesure d’exprimer tout son potentiel. Son entourage décide alors de le retirer de la compétition et de le castrer durant l’été, persuadé que son caractère d’étalon perturbe ses performances.
Solow fait son retour en compétition en avril 2014, dix mois après sa dernière course, et semble transformé par son opération, enchaînant d’emblée deux victoires sur 2 000 et 2 100 mètres. Son entraîneur envisage de lui faire prendre part au programme des longues distances, eu égard à ses origines maternelles, et tente un premier essai au niveau des groupes dans le Prix Vicomtesse Vigier à Chantilly. Mais le cheval ne révèle pas un tempérament de stayer, et il est aussitôt rediriger vers le mile : dès lors, sa carrière s’apparente à une litanie de victoires. Solow remporte sa première course de groupe fin août en dans le Prix Quincey, puis monte d’un niveau en s’offrant le Prix Daniel Wildenstein, groupe 2, avant d’être mis au repos pour l’hiver.
Désormais âgé de 5 ans, Solow fait une rentrée précoce et victorieuse début mars sous la monte de Maxime Guyon, qui devient désormais son partenaire attitré, avant de s’envoler à Dubaï pour le premier objectif d’une année qui s’annonce exceptionnelle, et durant laquelle il restera invaincu. Dans le Dubaï Turf, il réalise une véritable démonstration, pulvérisant de quatre longueurs et demi l’opposition emmenée par l’excellent Britannique The Grey Gatsby – une performance qui lui permet de se hisser au troisième rang des bilans mondiaux. De retour en France, il s’offre le scalp du grand Cirrus des Aigles dans le Prix d’Ispahan, puis s’aligne au départ des Queen Anne Stakes durant le festival d’Ascot, où l’attend celui qui passe pour le meilleur miler du monde, le Hong-kongais Able Friend, qui figure tout en haut des ratings internationaux. Le match entre les deux chevaux est l’un des points d’orgue du meeting, Able Friend ayant enchaîné six victoires depuis fin 2014, dont le Hong Kong Mile. Mais il n’y aura pas photo à l’arrivée : avec l’excuse d’être loin de ses terres, le Hong-kongais abdique rapidement toute prétention et laisse filer Solow vers une nouvelle victoire.
Désormais incontestable numéro 1 des chevaux d’âge sur le mile, Solow poursuit sa moisson de groupes 1 en Angleterre en gagnant les Sussex Stakes à Goodwood, une victoire certes moins impressionnante que les précédentes. Privé du Prix Jacques Le Marois, fermé aux hongres, il doit attendre le British Champions Day fin octobre à Ascot pour renouer avec la compétition, dans les Queen Elizabeth II Stakes. Il doit cette fois faire face à la jeune génération, représentée par le Français Territories et surtout l’Irlandais Gleneagles. Gleneagles est considéré comme un phénomène depuis ses victoires au printemps dans les 2000 Guinées et les St. James’s Palace Stakes. Mais depuis, il n’a fait qu’esquiver le combat : déclaré non partant dans trois groupes 1 d’affilée free people dresses, pour cause d’un terrain jugé peu à sa convenance, il doit encore prouver qu’il mérite sa réputation. Mais là encore, il n’y aura pas lutte : tel un rouleau compresseur, Solow s’impose en force tandis que Gleaneagles et Territories terminent aux sixième et septième places. C’est la dernière sortie d’une saison parfaite pour Solow, que son entourage décide de ne pas aligner dans la Breeders’ Cup : six courses, six victoires dont cinq de groupe 1.
Solow fait son retour à la compétition en mars 2016 à Chantilly, dans un prix de série où il s’impose aisément, en guise de préparation à une nouvelle tentative dans le Dubaï Turf. Mais il doit y renoncer en raison d’une légère blessure à l’entraînement.
Solow appartient à la dernière génération produite par le champion anglais Singspiel. Lauréat de quelques-unes des plus grandes joutes internationales, celui-ci possède un palmarès tout à fait exceptionnel : la Dubaï World Cup, la Japan Cup, les Canadian International Stakes, la Coronation Cup ou encore les International Stakes sont ainsi tombés dans son escarcelle. Jusqu’à sa mort en 2010, il aura été un étalon de premier plan, donnant une dizaine de vainqueurs de niveau groupe 1, son prix de saillie culminant à £ 35 000.
Côté maternel, Solow est le premier produit d’une jument sérieuse, adepte des longues distances, High Maintenance, qui se classa troisième d’un groupe 3 sur 3 000 mètres, le Prix Gladiateur. Cette famille de l’élevage Wertheimer est garante de tenue, puisque la deuxième mère de Solow, Fabulous Hostess, brilla au-delà de 2 000 mètres, remportant les Prix de Royallieu (Gr.2), Fille de l’Air (Gr.3) et Corrida (Gr.3).
The Union Pacific Police Department is the law enforcement agency of the Union Pacific Railroad. Its headquarters is in Omaha, Nebraska and its current Chief of Police is Robert Morrison. The railroad police force dates to the 1850s, when the number of U.S. Marshals was insufficient to police America’s growing rail network. U.S. Marshals were replaced with a private police company, the North-Western Police Agency, later known as the Pinkerton Agency. Officers were called Pinkertons, named after their originator, Allan Pinkerton, who founded the private police company in 1855 with Chicago attorney Edward Rucker. Today, the Union Pacific Police Department is one of the sixteen Class I railroad law enforcement agencies across the country.
Union Pacific maintains a functioning police department staffed with officers given the title of Special Agent with jurisdiction over crimes against the railroad. Like most railroad police, its primary jurisdiction is unconventional, consisting of 54,116 miles (87,091 kilometers) of track in 23 western U.S. states. Railroad police are certified state law enforcement officers with investigative and arresting powers both on and off railroad property if authorized by the state they are operating within. They also have interstate authority pursuant to federal law (Title 49, United States Code, Section 28101. Under Public Law 110-53 SEC. 1526. (RAILROAD SECURITY ENHANCEMENTS)), Railroad police powers have been expanded to include railroads other than the officer’s employing agency. All of the states in Union Pacific’s 23 state system authorize full police authority, except for Minnesota and Wyoming
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, which do not grant authority to railroad police at all.
Special Agents typically investigate major incidents such as derailments, sabotage, grade crossing accidents and hazardous material accidents and minor issues such as trespassing on the railroad right of way, vandalism/graffiti, and theft of company property or customer product. In accordance with their duties, Special Agents have the ability to access the FBI’s NCIC database to run suspects and vehicles for wants and warrants, as well as criminal history checks.
Special Agents often coordinate and liaise with local, state, and federal law enforcement on issues concerning the railroad and are dispatched nationally through the Response Management Communications Center (RMCC) in Omaha, Nebraska. The Union Pacific Police Department and the title “Special Agent” were models for the FBI when it was created in 1907.
The Union Pacific Police Department can be contacted for railroad emergencies on Union Pacific tracks or right of way at 1-888-UPRR-COP (888-877-7267).
The Union Pacific Police use a variety of different weapons and vehicles. There are set regulations for the department with respect to weapons. The UP Police are issued the Glock 22
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, .40SW. They use a number of different vehicles due to their jurisdiction.
Meshuggah /məˈʃʊɡə/ is a Swedish extreme metal band from Umeå, formed in 1987. Meshuggah’s line-up consists of founding members vocalist Jens Kidman and lead guitarist Fredrik Thordendal, drummer Tomas Haake, who joined in 1990, rhythm guitarist Mårten Hagström, who joined in 1992 and bassist Dick Lövgren since 2004.
Meshuggah first attracted international attention with the 1995 release Destroy Erase Improve for its fusion of fast-tempo death metal, thrash metal and progressive metal elements. Since its 2002 album Nothing, Meshuggah has switched from seven-string to downtuned eight-string guitars. Meshuggah has become known for their innovative musical style, complex, polymetered song structures and polyrhythms. Meshuggah was labelled as one of the ten most important hard rock and heavy metal bands by Rolling Stone and as the most important band in metal by Alternative Press. Meshuggah has found little mainstream success as yet, but is a significant act in extreme underground music. Nevertheless, Meshuggah has begun to gain attention and respect among more mainstream audiences since the late 2000s, having also inspired the djent movement within progressive metal.
Since its formation, Meshuggah has released seven studio albums, six EPs and eight music videos. The band has performed in various international festivals, including Ozzfest and Download, and embarked on the obZen world tour from 2008 to 2010. Meshuggah’s latest studio album, Koloss, was released on March 23, 2012. Nothing and the albums that followed have all charted on the Billboard 200. Meshuggah’s most commercially successful album, Koloss, debuted at number 17 in the USA, with first week sales of 18,342 copies. In 2006 and 2009, the band was nominated for a Swedish Grammy Award.
In 1985, guitarist Fredrik Thordendal formed a band in Umeå, a college town in northern Sweden with a population of 105,000. The band, originally named Metallien, recorded a number of demo tapes, after which it disbanded. Thordendal, however, continued playing under a different name with new band members.
Meshuggah was formed in 1987 by vocalist and guitarist Jens Kidman, and took the name Meshuggah from the Yiddish word for “crazy”. The band recorded several demos before Kidman left, which prompted the remaining members to disband. Kidman then formed a new band, Calipash, with guitarist Thordendal, bassist Peter Nordin and drummer Niklas Lundgren. Kidman, who also played guitar, and Thordendal decided to restore the name Meshuggah for the new band.
On February 3, 1989, Meshuggah released the self-titled, three-song EP Meshuggah, which is commonly known as Psykisk Testbild (a title that could be translated as “Psychological Test-Picture”). This 12″ (30 cm) vinyl EP had only 1,000 copies released, sold by local record store Garageland. The EP’s back cover features the band members with cheese doodles on their faces.
After replacing drummer Niklas Lundgren with Tomas Haake in 1990, Meshuggah signed a contract with German heavy metal record label Nuclear Blast and recorded its debut full-length album, Contradictions Collapse. The LP, originally entitled (All this because of) Greed, was released on January 1, 1991. The album received positive reviews, but was not a commercial success. Soon after, Kidman decided to concentrate on vocals, and rhythm guitarist Mårten Hagström, who had already played in a band with Haake when they were in sixth grade, was recruited. The new lineup recorded the EP None at Tonteknik Recordings in Umeå in 1994 for release later that year. A Japanese version was also released, including lyrics printed in Japanese.
During this period, Thordendal, who was working as a carpenter, severed the tip of his left middle finger, while Haake injured his hand in a grinder accident. As a result, the band was unable to perform for several months. Thordendal’s fingertip was later reattached, and he went on to make a full recovery. The Selfcaged EP was recorded in April and May 1994, but its release was delayed to later in 1995 due to the accidents.
In January 1995, Meshuggah undertook a short European tour organized by its record label Nuclear Blast. Afterwards, the band returned to the studio to record the album Destroy Erase Improve at Soundfront Studios in Uppsala, with Daniel Bergstrand as a producer. Shortly thereafter, the band went on a European tour supporting Machine Head for two months. During the tour, Nordin became ill and experienced difficulties with his inner ear balance. Due to the resulting chronic dizziness and vertigo, Nordin was forced to leave the tour and travel to Sweden. Machine Head’s bassist Adam Duce offered to cover his absence; however, Meshuggah decided to continue as a four-piece. Sometimes Thordendal played bass, while other times the band performed with two guitars. In this lineup, Hagström would use a pitch shifter to play his guitar at an octave lower than usual.
Destroy Erase Improve was released in July 1995, with positive response from critics for the “heady tempos and abstract approach”. Kidman described the album cover: “The title fits the pictures we cut out and stole from reference books in the library.”
In mid-1995, Meshuggah had a short tour with Swedish band Clawfinger in Scandinavia and Germany. Nordin had to leave the band because of his sickness and was replaced by bassist Gustaf Hielm during the tour. In late 1995, Meshuggah went on a month-long tour with Hypocrisy.
During 1996 and 1997, Thordendal worked on his solo album Sol Niger Within, which was released in March 1997 in Scandinavia and in April in Japan. He also hosted Mats/Morgan Band’s debut. In 1997, Meshuggah recorded an unreleased demo, toured occasionally, and played a few concerts in its hometown. In May, Meshuggah moved to Stockholm to be closer to its management and the record industry in general.
The EP The True Human Design was recorded and released in late 1997. It contained one new song entitled “Sane”, and one live and two alternate versions of Destroy Erase Improve’s opening track “Future Breed Machine”. Thordendal’s solo album Sol Niger Within was simultaneously released in the United States, and Meshuggah started to plan its next album at the end of the year.
Hielm officially joined the band in January 1998 after more than two years as a session member. Nuclear Blast re-released Contradictions Collapse with the addition of songs from the None EP. In May 1998, the title of the next album, Chaosphere, was reported and recording began. Immediately after recording the album, Meshuggah went on a short US tour, and the album was released later in November 1998. Shortly after the release, Meshuggah toured Scandinavia with Entombed.
In early 1999, Meshuggah joined Slayer on their U.S. tour. After the new album and the live performances, Meshuggah was beginning to be recognized by mainstream music
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, guitar, drum and metal magazines. In mid-1999, Meshuggah performed in several Swedish concerts. The band started to write some new material but reported in mid-2000 that “songwriting isn’t that dramatic, but we’re getting there slowly”. While fans were waiting for the next album, a collection of demos (from the Psykisk Testbild EP), remixes and unreleased songs from the Chaosphere sessions were released as the Rare Trax album. Hielm left the band in July 2001 for unclear reasons. Meshuggah joined Tool on a lengthy tour, playing for more than 100,000 people total.
In March 2002, Meshuggah recorded three-track demos with programmed drums in their home studio, which were based on Haake’s sample Drumkit from Hell. The upcoming album was recorded in five to six weeks in May and was produced by the band at Dug-Out Studios in Uppsala and at its home studio in Stockholm. The last-minute decision to join 2002’s Ozzfest tour forced the band to mix the album in two days and master it in one. Meshuggah immediately went on another US tour after finishing the recording.
The album Nothing was released in August 2002, selling 6,525 copies during its first week in the US and reaching No. 165 on the Billboard 200. With this album, Meshuggah became the first band in the history of Nuclear Blast Records to crack the Billboard 200 and also became the first band signed to Nuclear Blast to be reviewed in Rolling Stone magazine. Meshuggah’s previous two releases, 1998’s Chaosphere and 1995’s Destroy Erase Improve, have sold 38,773 and 30,712 copies to that date, respectively. The CD booklet of Nothing has no liner notes, lyrics, or credits, only a hint of one word: ingenting, which is Swedish for nothing. All of this information is available on the CD-ROM. At the end of 2002, the band went on another US tour with Tool and a headlining tour of its own.
In 2003, Hagström hinted at the direction of the band’s next album by saying, “There’s only one thing I really feel that is important. We’ve never measured our success in terms of sales, because we’re quite an extreme band. It’s more that people understand where we’re coming from. I get more out of a fan coming up and saying that we’ve totally changed their way of looking on metal music, than having like 200 kids buy it. I mean, it would be nice for the money, but that’s not why we’re in it. So what I’d like to see is that we keep progressing. Keeping the core of what Meshuggah has always been, but exploring the bar, so to speak. Destroy Erase Improve was like exploring the dynamics of the band, Chaosphere was exploring the aggressiveness, the all-out side, and Nothing is more of a sinister, dark, pretty slow album, actually. So honestly, now I don’t know where we’re going. It might be a mix of all of them.”
In February 2004, bassist Dick Lövgren joined Meshuggah. The band then recorded and released the I EP, which contains a single, 21-minute track, released on Fractured Transmitter Records. Meshuggah spent about six months in total on recording the EP. Catch Thirtythree, the only Meshuggah album on which programmed drums have been used, was released the following year in May 2005. Seven thousand copies of Catch Thirtythree were sold the first week, and it debuted at No. 170 on the Billboard 200 chart in June 2005. The video for the track “Shed” was released in June, and the previous album Nothing sold approximately 80,000 copies in the United States to that date, according to Nielsen SoundScan. Catch Thirtythree earned the band a Swedish Grammy nomination.
In December 2005, 10 years after signing its first record deal with the publishing company Warner/Chappell Music Scandinavia, Meshuggah extended its cooperation with the company. In November 2005, Haake said in an interview that the band was not content with the productions of Chaosphere and Nothing, because, being on tour, they had little time to devote to them.
A remixed and remastered version of Nothing with rerecorded guitars was released in a custom-shaped slipcase featuring a three-dimensional hologram card on October 31, 2006, via Nuclear Blast Records. The release also includes a bonus DVD featuring the band’s appearance at the Download 2005 festival and the official music videos of “Rational Gaze”, “Shed” and “New Millennium Cyanide Christ”.
Meshuggah returned to the studio to record obZen, which was released in March 2008. The band spent almost a year on the album, its longest recording session yet. A significant portion of the year was spent learning to perform the songs they wrote; the recording itself took six months. obZen reached No. 59 on the Billboard 200 chart, selling 11,400 U.S. copies in its first week of release and 50,000 copies after six months. With obZen, Meshuggah received more media attention and attracted new fans. The release was followed by a world tour, which started in the U.S. and proceeded to Europe, Asia and Australia.
In May 2008, Meshuggah published a music video for the song “Bleed”, which was produced by Ian McFarland and was written, directed and edited by Mike Pecci and Ian McFarland. Killswitch Productions said: “It’s extremely cool to work with a band who is willing to allow the music and imagery to speak for itself and who does not insist on themselves being the prominent focus of the video.”
In January 2009, obZen was nominated for the Swedish Grammis award in the “Best Hard Rock” category. In February 2009, Haake announced that the band was planning a concert DVD and a studio album. In April, Meshuggah was forced to cancel its Scandinavian shows in early 2009, due to Haake’s herniated disc in his lower back, which was causing problems with his right foot when playing. Haake later underwent a surgery and recovered for European summer festivals.
The concert DVD entitled Alive was released on February 5, 2010 in Europe and February 9 in North America. Thordendal started to work on a second solo album in June 2010 with the Belgian drummer Dirk Verbeuren.
The newest studio album, Koloss, was released on March 23, 2012 in Germany, on March 26 in the rest of Europe, and March 27 in North America. Koloss reached No. 17 on the Billboard Top 200, and sold 18,342 copies in its first week. In Sweden, it reached No. 12.
On February 5, 2013, Meshuggah released a free two-track EP entitled Pitch Black with Scion A/V. The EP features a previously unreleased track, “Pitch Black”, that was recorded by Fredrik Thordendal in 2003 at Fear and Loathing, in Stockholm Sweden. The second track is a live recording of “Dancers to a Discordant System” from ObZen. The track was recorded at Distortion Fest in Eindhoven, Netherlands, on December 9, 2012.
Meshuggah’s experimentation, stylistic variation and changes during its career cross several musical subgenres. Heavy metal subgenres avant-garde metal or experimental metal are umbrella terms that enable description of the career of the band in general.[a] Extreme metal crosses both thrash metal and death metal (or technical death metal), which are at root of the sound of Meshuggah’s music, which has also been described as groove metal.[b] The band is often labelled as math metal (for using elements of math rock) and progressive metal.[c] Meshuggah also incorporates elements of experimental jazz. In its review of Nothing, Allmusic describes Meshuggah as “masterminds of cosmic calculus metal—call it Einstein metal if you want”. Meshuggah’s early output was also considered alternative metal. Meshuggah creates a recognizable sonic imprint and distinct style.
Trademarks and characteristics that define Meshuggah’s sound and songwriting include polyrhythms, polymetered riff cycles, rhythmic syncopation, rapid key and tempo changes and neo-jazz chromatics.[d] Hagström notes that “it doesn’t really matter if something is hard to play or not. The thing is, what does it do to your mind when you listen to it? Where does it take you?” A trademark of Thordendal is jazz fusion-like soloing and improvisation. He is also known for the usage of a “breath controller” device. Haake is known for his cross-rhythm drumming with “jazzlike cadence”.[e] The vocal style of Jens Kidman varies between hardcore-style shouts and “robotic” death metal vocals.
In polymeters typically used by Meshuggah, the guitars might play in odd meters such as 5/16 or 17/16, while drums play in 4/4. One particular example of Haake’s use of polymeter is 4/4 against 23/16 bimeter, in which he keeps the hi-hat and ride cymbal in 4/4 time but uses the snare and double bass drums in 23/16 time. On “Rational Gaze” (from Nothing), Haake plays simple 4/4 time, hitting the snare on each third beat, for 16 bars. At the same time, the guitars and bass are playing same quarter notes, albeit in a different time signature; eventually both sides meet up again at the 64th beat. Hagström notes about the polymeters, “We’ve never really been into the odd time signatures we get accused of using. Everything we do is based around a 4/4 core. It’s just that we arrange parts differently around that center to make it seem like something else is going on.”
The early work of Meshuggah, influenced mainly by Metallica, is “simpler and more straightforward than their more recent material, but some of their more progressive elements are present in the form of time-changes and polyrhythmics, and Fredrik Thordendal’s lead playing stands out”. According to Allmusic, their debut album is a relatively immature, but original, release. Double bass drums and “angular” riffing also defined the early work of Meshuggah.
With the groundbreaking Destroy Erase Improve, Meshuggah showed fusion of death metal, thrash metal, progressive metal and technical polyrhythmic math metal. Allmusic describes the style as “weaving hardcore-style shouts amongst deceptively (and deviously) simple staccato guitar riffs and insanely precise drumming—often with all three components acting in different time signatures”. Thordendal adds the melodic element with his typical lead guitar and uses his “breath controller” device most famously on the opening track “Future Breed Machine”.
Chaosphere incorporates typically fast, still tempo changing death metal. Allmusic compares the genre also with grindcore fathers Napalm Death. Rockdetector states: “Whilst fans reveled in the maze like meanderings, critics struggled to dissect and analyze, hailing Haake’s unconventional use of dual 4/4 and 23/16 rhythm, Kidman’s mechanical staccato bark and Thordendal’s liberal usage of avant-garde jazz”.
On Nothing, Meshuggah abandons the fast tempos of Chaosphere and concentrates on slow, tuned down tempos and grooves. The album was intended to be recorded using custom-made Nevborn eight-string guitars, but the prototypes were faulty so Thordendal and Hagström used detuned Ibanez seven-string guitars instead. This technique, which involved keeping the instruments untuned during the sessions, created additional problems. When Ibanez provided Meshuggah with special eight-string guitars with two extra-low strings that worked properly after the initial release, the band re-recorded the guitar parts for Nothing and re-released it in 2006. Hagström notes that this allowed the band to go lower sonically and to attain bass sounds on guitars.
The I EP contains a single, 21-minute song of complex arrangements and was a hint of the forthcoming album, 2005’s Catch Thirtythree. The EP, which was never played live by the band, was written and recorded during jamming sessions of Haake and Thordendal. On Catch Thirtythree, Meshuggah again used eight-string guitars, but utilized programmed drums for the first time also for the release, with the exception of two songs from 2001’s compilation Rare Trax. The album was self-produced by the band and was recorded at the studio that Meshuggah shares with Clawfinger. Hagström notes, “The eight-strings really have given us a whole new musical vocabulary to work with. Part of it is the restrictions they impose: you really can’t play power chords with them; the sound just turns to mush. Instead, we concentrated on coming up with really unusual single-note parts, new tunings and chord voicings. We wanted to get as far away from any kind of conventions and traditions as we could on the album, so the guitars worked out beautifully.”
Catch Thirtythree is one 47-minute song divided into 13 sections. It is more mid-tempo guitar riff based, and a more straightforward and experimental full-length album than Chaosphere or Nothing. Nick Terry of Decibel Magazine describes the album as a four-movement symphony. Some songs still use Meshuggah’s “familiar template combining harsh vocals and nightmarish melodies over coarse, mechanically advancing, oddball tempos”, while others explore ambient sounds and quieter dynamics. The first part of Catch Thirtythree centers around two simple riffs. In the song “In Death – Is Death”, the band uses a combination of noise and silence, which is in contrast with the atypical melodies on “Dehumanization”. On “Mind’s Mirrors”, Meshuggah used electronics, programming and “robotic voices”. “Shed” incorporates tribal percussion and whispered vocals.
With 2008’s obZen, Meshuggah moved away from the experimentation of 2002’s Nothing and 2005’s Catch Thirtythree to return to the musical style of its previous albums, such as Contradictions Collapse, Destroy Erase Improve and Chaosphere, while still maintaining its focus on musical and technical innovation. The album loses some of the mathematical-like rhythmal quick changes of past releases and the melodic orchestration of Catch Thirty-Three and uses “angular” riffs, mid-tempo and common 4/4 beats. The album is a culmination of the band’s previous work. Meshuggah decided to self-produce because it sought to retain artistic control over the recording and mixing process.
For obZen, Haake returned to the drum kit most notably with his performance on the song “Bleed”. In an interview for Gravemusic.com, Haake stated, “[‘Bleed’] was a big effort for me to learn, I had to find a totally new approach to playing the double bass drums to be able to do that stuff. I had never really done anything like that before like the fast bursts that go all the way through the song basically. So I actually spent as much time practicing that track alone as I did with all of the other tracks combined. It’s kind of a big feat to change your approach like that and I’m glad we were able to nail it for the album. For a while though we didn’t even know if it was going to make it to the album.” Hagström also stated, “obZen is one of the most highly technical offerings the band has ever put to tape”. Revolver magazine confirms this statement: “At first listen, obZen seems less challenging to the listener than some of the band’s other records, and most of the songs flow smoothly from one syncopated passage to the next. However, careful examination reveals that the material is some of the group’s most complicated”.
Meshuggah has become known for its innovative musical style that evolves between each release and pushes heavy metal into new territory, and for its technical prowess.[f] Hagström comments: “We try never to repeat ourselves.” Rockdetector stated about Destroy Erase Improve: “[T]he band…stripped Metal down to the bare essentials before completely rebuilding it in a totally abstract form”. The official Meshuggah biography comments on Chaosphere by noting that “Some fans felt that Meshuggah had left their dynamic and progressive elements behind; while others thought they were only progressing naturally and focusing on their original sound.” The band’s website also describes Nothing as displaying “a very mature and convincing Meshuggah, now focusing on groove and sound…Meshuggah once again divided their fans into the ‘ecstatic’ and the ‘slightly disappointed'”. The polyrhythms can make the music sound cacophonous, like band members are playing different songs simultaneously. Listeners perceiving a polyrhythm often either extract a composite pattern that is fitted to a metric framework, or focus on one rhythmic stream while treating others as “noise”.
Rolling Stone labeled Meshuggah as “one of the ten most important hard and heavy bands”, and the Alternative Press named it the “most important band in metal.” Meshuggah has been described as virtuoso or genius-bordering musicians,[g] “recognized by mainstream music magazines, especially those dedicated to particular instruments”. In 2007, Meshuggah earned an in-depth analysis by the academic journal Music Theory Spectrum. Meshuggah has found little mainstream success but is a significant act in extreme underground music and an influence for many modern metal bands. According to guardian.co.uk, Meshuggah coined the onomatopoeic term “djent”, describing an “elastic, syncopated guitar riff”, that later gave a name to the microgenre.
Meshuggah’s music is written by Thordendal, Hagström and Haake with assistance from Kidman. During songwriting, a member programs the drums, and records the guitar and bass via computer. He presents his idea to the other members as a finished work. Meshuggah typically adheres to the original idea and rarely changes the song afterwards. Hagström explains that each member has an idea of what the others are doing conceptually, and nobody thinks exclusively in terms of a particular instrument. Kidman does not play guitar in the band anymore, but he is involved in writing riffs.
Except for when Hagström needs a soloist, he and Thordendal rarely record together. Both play guitar and bass while composing. Haake says about his songwriting, “Sometimes I’ll sample guitar parts, cut them up, pitch-shift and tweak them until I’ve built the riffs I want, just for demoing purposes. But most of the time I’ll just present the drums, and explain my ideas for the rest of the song, sing some riffs.” The band uses Cubase to record the tracks, and the guitars are routed through software amplifier modeling, because it allows them to change the amp settings even after the song was fully recorded.
Approximately once a year, Haake writes most of the band’s lyrics, with the exception of finished tracks. His lyrical inspirations are derived from books and films. Although Meshuggah does not record concept albums, the band prefers strong conceptual underpinnings in the background.
Often esoteric and conceptual, Meshuggah’s lyrics explore themes such as existentialism. Allmusic describes Destroy Erase Improve’s lyrical focus as “the integration of machines with organisms as humanity’s next logical evolutionary step”. PopMatters’ review of Nothing singles out the lyrics from “Rational Gaze”: “Our light-induced image of truth—filtered blank of its substance / As our eyes won’t adhere to intuitive lines / Everything examined. Separated, one thing at a time / The harder we stare the more complete the disintegration.” Haake explains that Catch Thirtythree’s cover, title and lyrics deal with “the paradoxes /negations /contradictions of life and death (as we see it in our finest moments of unrestrained metaphoric interpretation)”.
The main theme of obZen is “human evil”, according to Haake. The title is a play on the words “obscene” and “Zen”; in addition, “ob” means “anti” in Latin. Therefore, the title suggests that the human species has found harmony and balance in warfare and bloodshed. Revolver Magazine finds the lyrics of the title track from obZen representative of the entire album: “Salvation found in vomit and blood/Where depravation, lies, corruption/War and pain is god.” However, Haake claims, “We don’t dwell on hate and bad feelings as people. But with these songs, I think we really wanted to paint a picture lyrically that might be seen as a cautionary tale. We’re going, ‘Heads up. Here’s what some of the parts of being human are about, and this is what we can be at our worst.’ So it’s more about being aware of negative feelings than actually living them all the time.”
Media related to Meshuggah at Wikimedia Commons
Assumption High School (AHS) is a public secondary school located at 4880 Highway 308 in unincorporated Assumption Parish, Louisiana, north of the City of Napoleonville; it has a ZIP code of 70390. It is a part of the Assumption Parish School Board.
The sole high school in Assumption Parish, it takes students from all parts of the parish, including Napoleonville, Labadieville, Pierre Part, Bayou L’Ourse, and Belle Rose.
From its inception in 1948, AHS has always striven to educate students to be productive members of society.
Assumption High School is an
Academic institution promoting High expectations resulting in Successful students
At Assumption High, it is their commitment to untie people and resources toward the common goal of providing a high quality education directed toward teaching and learning for all children.
Assumption High School has a variety of sports. The volleyball, tennis
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, and cheerleading teams do extremely well throughout the year.
The Assumption High School mascot is the mustang. Assumption High has named its mascot “Sally” in keeping with the song “Mustang Sally.”
Tramon Williams is also a one time Super Bowl winner.
Susina Plantation is an antebellum Greek Revival house and several dependencies on 140 acres (57 ha) near Beachton, Georgia, approximately 15 miles (24 km) southwest of the city of Thomasville, Georgia. It was originally called Cedar Grove. The house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and is currently a private residence.
Edward Blackshear moved to the area circa 1822 from what was then Pulaski County, Georgia. Edward was the brother of General David Blackshear, the namesake of Lake Blackshear and the town of Blackshear, Georgia. Edward died September 3, 1829 and his land passed to his wife and five children. The largest block was bequeathed jointly to his sons James Joseph and Thomas Edward. These two continued to acquire land and ultimately amassed approximately 4,815 acres (1,949 ha).
Circa 1841, James Joseph commissioned the architect John Wind to design a plantation house. This photograph, although probably taken after the American Civil War, depicts the structure as originally built. John Wind was born in Bristol, England, in 1819. He was also the architect for the Greenwood, Fair Oaks, Oak Lawn, Pebble Hill and Eudora Plantations, and the Thomas County Courthouse. William Warren Rogers writes “Some of Wind’s work still exists and reveals him as one of the South’s most taleted but, unfortunately, least known architects.”
James Joseph Blackshear was killed in a cotton press accident on November 3
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, 1843 before the house was completed. His wife, Harriet Blackshear, completed the house and continued to acquire land. His will was not probated until 1857 and her new acquisitions were recorded in his name. Harriet became a prominent planter in her own right. In 1860, thirteen Thomas County planters produced over 100 bales of cotton. Harriet Blackshear had the record with 235 bales. She was also one of the county’s larger rice producers and she raised 5000 bushels of sweet potatoes. Food crops were also required to feed not only her family, but the slaves who worked the land. The 1840 census recorded 43 male and 59 female slaves. When James Joseph’s will was probated in 1857, it listed 161 slaves by name.”Antebellum”. Harriet Blackshear died in 1863. After the American Civil War, Cedar Grove fell onto hard times, but it remained in Blackshear hands until 1887.
In the 1880s and 1890s, Thomasville was a popular wintering area for wealthy Northern industrialists who came by scheduled rail and private rail cars to hunt and enjoy the pine-scented air. The old and then unproductive plantations were soon discovered and by 1890, all of the 70 plantations in the Thomasville area had been acquired for use primarily as private hunting preserves and retreats. In 1887, Cedar Grove was acquired by Dr. John Metcalfe of New York who used it as a hunting lodge. He renamed Cedar Grove to Susina. Dr. Metcalfe had a wife named Susan and wild plum grew on the property. Susina is Italian for plum. In 1891, A. Heywood Mason of Philadelphia purchased Susina Plantation and approximately 6400 acres (2590 ha). He had inherited a fortune made by his father James S. Mason who developed and sold shoe polish, called shoe blackening at the time. He added side porches to the house and probably the rear kitchen wing. He later expanded the dining room by enclosing a portion of the south porch.
The community around Susina was initially called Duncanville. Maps dated from 1887 until 1906 show the town as Susina. After 1906, the area become known as Beachton. Originally located in Thomas County, Susina Plantation is now located in Grady County which was formed out of Thomas and Decatur Counties in 1905.
A. Heywood Mason died in 1911 and the plantation was managed by his wife, Anna. After her death in 1931, A. Heywood Mason’s son, James Mason II, managed Susina Plantation. His sister, Elanor Mason Butler and her husband expanded the nearby cottage to 5,000 square feet (460 m2) circa 1925. In 1951, the land at Susina was divided among four heirs. One grandson of A. Heywood Mason, A. Heywood (Hey) Mason II, bought the interests of his brother and two sisters in the main house and the immediate dependencies. A. Heywood Mason II conducted repairs and renovations in 1951 and 1967. Susina Plantation was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 12, 1970.
In 1980, Susina Plantation was acquired by Anne Marie Walker and was operated as a bed and breakfast. Notable guests were Paul Newman and his wife Joanne Woodward, a Thomasville native. In 2000, Randall and Marilynn Rhea of Atlanta acquired the property for use as their private residence, and they hired general contractor Terrell Singletary of Thomasville to repair and renovate the main house and four of the dependencies. More recently, Susina Plantation has hosted events for the Grady County Historical Society, the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Thomas County Museum of History. The main house at Susina Plantation is considered by some to be one of the finest examples of the Greek Revival style. It was selected for the cover image of two books covering antebellum houses.
The main house sits on a knoll surrounded by large and mature live oak and magnolia lawns. John Wind’s early work, such as Greenwood and Susina, were in traditional Greek Revival style. Later at Eudora and Fair Oaks, he skillfully added his own style which tended toward a later romantic or Oriental period. Susina’s Ionic portico is supported by four two-story, fluted and tapered round columns. The portico extends across approximately three-fourths of the facade. The house was constructed from heart-pine cut on the property. The siding is clapboard except under the portico where the siding is set flush to resemble stone. The entablature runs completely around the house. The frieze of the portico is plain with large dentils under the cornice. The dentils are continued around the projecting cornice of the pediment. A sunflower rosette, perhaps hand carved by Wind, is in the center of the pediment. A cantilever balcony is under the portico, over the front door.
The front double door is eight by seven feet and has sidelights and a fixed transom with lattice work created by strips of wood. The molding around the door has a fret design at the upper and lower corners with fluting running the length of the posts. The door to the balcony is a seven by seven foot version of the main door. The first and second level windows have nine over nine lights and triangular pediments. The windows are six feet six inches high by two feet ten inches wide.
The plan is a basic four over four room layout with a central enclosed breezeway. In the original 1841 house, the rooms on the north (right) side of the house were not as deep as on the south, so the rear included a covered porch. A symmetric, circular staircase ascended from the north side of the breezeway to the left side of the top hallway. A room was formed on the second level behind the circular stairwell. The stairwell includes a small, decorative niche. Each room includes a fireplace that extends into the room approximately three feet. Mantels are supported by pilasters of varying design. The interior uses wainscoting throughout with top projecting molding serving as a dado. Door and window moldings are fluted with lintel sections. Simple crown molding completes a relatively simple but elegant woodwork style.
Circa 1891, A. Heywood Mason added porches that extend the full length of the house on both the north and south sides. The architect is unknown. Mason also probably added the rear kitchen wing. No photographs prior to 1895 of the rear of the house are known, so dates of renovations at the rear are in question. Between 1891 and 1930, the 1841 rear porch was enclosed to form new rooms on both levels. A south rear screened sleeping room above the side porch was added circa 1925. This sleeping porch and a rear race for air conditioning were removed by the Rhea’s in 2000 to return the exterior to an earlier period.